Symbiosis:

A portfolio of work focusing on the tensions between

electroacoustic and instrumental music. 

Ed Wright

 

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Dear reader,

 

This is some the text part of my PhD thesis, put up here so as to make sense of some of the music that is floating around on the internet  and in the real world, and possibly prove useful for people who are into this sort of thing. Also this is at the request of friends and students who would like to read it and for whom I've not got round to running off another 10 copies for at £28 each (ouch!).

There are other elements to this body of work such as scores, data sheets, software documentation and audio files that were submitted and are available either from me, or in reference form from the National Library of Wales, some are also gradually making their way onto here. If you do find any of this useful, or cite any of it, or copy and paste it into your own work, please email me at edwardcwright@hotmail.com.

 

Regards

 

Ed Wright

  

 

Summary

 

This portfolio of music, both notated and recorded, focuses on the tensions between electroacoustic and instrumental music. Within this commentary there is discussion of the topics raised by this combination of forces both at a philosophical and a practical level. A number of pieces of music have been composed, realised and performed in an attempt to explore and resolve some of these issues in a practical context.

 

These works fall within the broader remit of western ‘classical’ music, the instrumental resources ranging in scope from solo performers to six part choir and up to symphony orchestra. The musical language remains rooted in this idiom although allowances for exploration in line with the nature of experimental composition have been made. The electronic element is also largely ‘classical’ in style drawing from the heritage of European experimentation, making reference to the concrète and acousmatic methods of working whilst drawing on resources from stereo to 8 channel. Live processing is also included by way of software design and utilisation, and one of the works contains a pre-recorded visual element in the form of animation.

 

This portfolio comprises all the performance materials required, recordings and realisations of the works; as well as listing the technical resources used in the creation process, data sheets of software to enable future reconstruction, and a list of all known performances up to summer 2010.

 

(Supporting audio works can be found at http://www.virtual440.com and http://www.myspace.com/virtual440 when not available in the text and are available to purchase from http://www.blipfonica.com)

 

 

Contents:

 

             1.         Introduction

 

                         i           Extension of the repertoire, a number of conclusions, and yet more questions.

                         ii          Towards transformation...

                         iii         Causality and magic

                         iv         The visual element, space, and its redefinition.

                         v          Alchemy versus architecture

 

            

             2.         Commentaries

 

                         i           The Way I Saw It

                         ii          Enough~?

                         iii        Harp Set        

                         iv         Postcards from Home          

                         v          Con-chords

                         vi        Seasons

                         vii        Polarities: Concerto grosso for orchestra and electronics

                        

                        

             3.         Conclusions

            

             4.         Public output

 

                         i           Live performances

                         ii          Broadcast works

                         iii         Other academic / peer reviewed work

                        

             5.         Technical Resources

 

             6.         Bibliography

 

                         i           Written Material

                         ii          Websites

                         iii         Scores

 

             7.        Appendix

 

 

1.         Introduction

 

             1.i        Extension of the repertoire, a number of conclusions, and yet more questions.

 

When beginning this body of work, the intention was to extend the repertoire of the violin through the medium of electronically manipulated sound, focusing largely within the field of electroacoustic composition. The lack of ambition, and limitations of scope associated with this remit soon became apparent. The primary difficulty arose from attempting to unify such differing and seemingly mutually exclusive vehicles of musical expression. This body of work follows a paradigm shift, away from the split axioms of instrumental lattice based  composition (as Wishart would describe it)1 and the idiomatic rigours of the electro-

acoustic/acousmatic fields, towards an attempted integration of these traditions, in an effort to create a singularity of performance and meaning.

 

This led to a number of interesting of tensions. Some were practical such as the integration of live with electronic music, some were technical, such as the differing methods of handling pitch based material, and still others are more the domain of philosophy and aesthetics. These will be discussed and explored further within the following music, and in the commentaries thereon. The progression towards this understanding is clearly demonstrated by the movement from violin and electronics in the form of a relatively simple ‘tape’ piece, through to the exploration of live interaction in Enough~?, the effect of the visual and the ‘cross-pollination’ of fields culminating in Polarities, a work for symphony orchestra and multichannel live electronics. It may be worth noting that the works in this portfolio represent an attempt to incorporate the instrumental into the electronic. This is not to be viewed as acoustic composition, although there are obvious and significant parallels with such a manner of working. It is hoped that this body of work represents a new contribution to the field, in that it is explicitly stepping out of the philosophical pools of a number of genres with the aim of forming a method or style that is both unified in its forces and (albeit very subjective) rewarding and enjoyable to listen to and interact with.

 

             1.ii       Towards transformation...

 

The concept of the transformation of sounds is fundamental to the electroacoustic tradition of composition.2 This  characteristic  operates on at least two levels: the physical and the conceptual. Firstly and most explicitly the physical operates by way of the changing of sounds 3 from one recognisable real world object into those of another, generally as a result of some intermediary process such as convolution or vocoding, or, more historically by the use of a bridging ‘object’ containing aspects of both sounds, forming a temporary link between the two main events. On the conceptual level, sources can be transformed by the alteration of the musical/auditory function of a given sound, as most clearly demonstrated by the acousmatic approach. The sound of a door slamming has a clear causality, even when not implied by such a description, but it can also function as a percussive ‘note’, a cadencial gesture or as a signifier for the raising or release of emotional tension. This realignment of object and inference can be explored to a certain extent with purely concrète sounds, and to a large extent when making use of heavy processing in which causal links can be eroded to the point of annihilation, as shown in Con-Chords. These two levels of auditory conceptualisation are strongly interrelated and it is the manipulation of the tensions between the physical and conceptual cognition of a given sound set and the apparent mutual exclusivity of the transformation process 4 that provides a large amount of the underlying physical tension within the electroacoustic genre.

 

Sonic transformation,  and  spectro-morphology5 have  few  parallels  within  instrumental music beyond the thematic. Starting from the solo instrument, there are many examples of auditory modification although they are mostly limited to parameters such as pitch or intensity. Within these specialised fields there are many instruments that excel; the myriad of pitches found within the range of the 'cello are, for practical purposes, infinite, and the subtlety and relative ease of real time volume control and articulation achievable by a skilled performer is astounding. It is when considering timbre that traditional instruments show weaknesses. There are many ways to modify this property, and in numerous instruments the manipulation of tone is a part of basic playing technique. In some cases timbre can be modified to a more radical extent, such as the use of multiphonics in wind instruments, sul pont. in strings and mutes in brass. However this manipulation is limited to a finite pool of timbral possibilities, albeit mediated by the awareness and knowledge of the listener. The crude nature of timbral control and the fixed patterns of performer interface arise largely from the stylistic demands of notated music and its symbiosis with instrument design and playing technique. It is when stepping into the grounds of such a primarily auditory, and a-notational genre such as the acousmatic with its focus on experimentation, that these limitations have the potential to become problematic.

 

 

The fixed nature of instrumental timbre becomes less of an issue when working in an ensemble context. Composers as varied as Varèse, Debussy and Mahler are renowned for having used the sound of one instrument to colour another, or different sections of the orchestra in unusual combinations to create new composite textures and even to incorporate ‘new’ instruments. 6  Within  their  remit they were very successful. They were not trying to match the sonic possibilities afforded by early twenty-first century computing. The spectral ‘school’ of composition has arguably come closest to this effect, but remains limited in its success in this respect, whilst creating numerous difficulties in terms of instrumental performance. The spectral possibilities of studio based composition cannot be matched by instrumental performance. Another solution must be found in order to create a union of these two forms of musical expression.

 

             1.iii      Causality and magic

            

Throughout its evolution electroacoustic music has been plagued by issues of causality and reality. Musically the works obey the familiar rules of cause and effect with an object remaining at rest until acted upon by an external impulse. Tension and release, high crashing to low and the calm after the storm are all verbal examples of this and are experimented with in Postcards From Home. Whether explicitly, or by way of subversion in order to create musical tension, electroacoustic music is bounded by the experiential norms of the listener. It is also this filter of understanding that has lead in part to the need for diffusion or ‘performance’ of potentially autonomous works, ‘orchestras of loud speakers’ 7 and the questioning of whether it is  possible to  speak  of  the  performance  of electroacoustic music in the traditional understanding of the words.

 

Conversely instrumental music has a strong causal link, an instrument is a direct physical extension of the musicians’ body and expressive capacity. The inclusion of the instrumental into the electroacoustic space reveals a number of new musical and causal dimensions. The concept of transformation and sonic malleability can be taken much further. With recorded work the listener derives a perception from sound pressure waves created by one or more loudspeakers. There is a clear suspension of disbelief in the understanding of sounds generated in this manner, often brought about by the intentional dismissal of non-auditory sources of information. This is not the case when listening to the performance of a competent musician. The inclusion of the real into the electroacoustic provides a physically tangible causality such as cannot be achieved by ‘tape’ alone (as exploited in The Way I Saw It or the visual manifestation of Harp Set). This is in part dependent on the skill of a performer in working with the rest of the music, and that of the composer in the juxtaposition of the two parts, as is true with any predetermined ensemble.

 

With careful sound editing, in the live or fixed domains, it is possible to transplant the sound of the performer into the electroacoustic plane. Most simply this can be achieved with pre-recording or routing a microphone into the diffusion system (as is suggested to augment the mix in Seasons). In a more sophisticated scenario, performance sounds can be processed and transformed in a similar manner to create an electroacoustic sequence such as in Enough~?. With forward planning performers can also be recorded prior to an event, and their sounds worked into an electronic part. Transformation is no longer the preserve of the electroacoustic field. Music can oscillate in the metaspace between the real and the electronic, mediated by the suppression of disbelief within the listener, and the technical capacities of the composer and performers.

 

Human beings share more emotional understanding with other humans than they do with electronic equipment. The presence of a live element within a work can provide a strong empathetic bridge between the composer and audience, both in terms of reinforcing the original intent and catalysing other reactions based upon the material and external environmental factors. Having a live performer may not necessarily make people like the work, but it will draw them in, in a manner that a purely fixed medium work is unlikely to achieve.

 

The inclusion of a live musical element, be that of one or more musicians into the electroacoustic domain, has the potential to enhance many of the aspects of the electronic pattern of working but there are also obvious dangers in introducing something as apparently contradictory into a genre. If human creative interaction is required, it must be matched to the music in scope and intent, it must carry the listener, and provide both focus and foil to the musical ‘other’ of the electronic; they must be equal in their semiotic dance.

 

             1.iv      The visual element, space, and its redefinition.

 

Within any live performance the visual element is generally of great importance to the overall experience of the event (see the Polarities commentary for a photograph of performance). This is often less true within electroacoustic concerts due to their acousmatic nature. Nonetheless the spectacle of amassed speakers, desk and diffusion creates its own impact invoking an impressively modern and yet strangely ritualistic performance space. This forms a largely static environment for music making, which, whilst very impressive to the newcomer, can become familiar over time in much the same way as a concert hall, or even cathedral architecture, can become simply a backdrop for a concert, thus potentially requiring some form of visual focus. Introducing live performers into this equation must be done with care. As discussed above the physical presence of a performer can lend a sense of purpose to a work, however the dominance of our visual perception and the identification with another can very easily skew the balance away from an even dialogue between performer and ‘tape’ towards something that is close to karaoke.

 

This matter can be addressed in a number of ways. Firstly the work can be staged in such a manner as to ensure that the performer is not visually overpowering within the space, be that due to placing them next to large speakers or further back on the stage than normal in order to imply a non-soloistic role although care is required not to push the balance too far and ‘loose’ the human performer. Secondly, panning and diffusion can be brought into play. In a reverberant space an instrument will create a diffused sound. By definition this will engender a spacial element to the live sound, and, although obviously not as malleable as that of a multitrack piece, this forms auditory and conceptual connections into multi dimensional sound, in spite of arising from an arguably monophonic source. This can be exploited. Careful speaker placement can give the illusion of live and electronic sources emanating from the same point, but also, more importantly, the electronic then has the capacity to move, expand, diversify, interact with and subvert the live; provided that the initial unification has been established.

 

Musical unification can be achieved in a number of ways; panning the sound into alignment with the performer can achieve this, as can easily be done with the ‘performer + diffused stereo’ works The Way I Saw It and Enough~? and by staging the performers and speakers suitably with the more fixed eight channel works. As a tool for achieving unification panning remains relatively crude when used in isolation. Other aspects such as timbre, pitch, volume and temporal effects can be employed to create stronger links between the two elements. Equally the fading in of one source helps to set up a feeling of emergence from the background of the other. Careful consideration must be given to first entries within the music as this can set a strong precedent to the overall nature of the parts.

 

Be they battling or symbiotic, the nature of the media implies a relatively stationary live element and a potentially highly mobile electroacoustic counterpart. The conventional audience arrangement of facing the performer provides an obvious focus for the unification of the two parts and a front to the electroacoustic mix.8 The capacity for surround sound grants the visually subservient speaker part a dominance not afforded to the more visually powerful performer. Within this space there is therefore the potential for great flexibility of movement, once the performer has been established as the point of reference. An informed classical audience does not have the expectation of performers moving around the space whilst playing, neither does the electroacoustic audience forgive sedentary work. Once links have been established between the two methods of composition, it is implicit that they are very different and can therefore be expected that they exhibit very different characteristics, albeit with a unity of purpose.

 

             1.v       Alchemy versus architecture

 

It is clear that both the electroacoustic and instrumental media have differing strengths and weaknesses, and yet they both generate a similar output, that of music or sonic art. The lazy argument that some electroacoustic composition is something other than music, and therefore fundamentally differs from instrumental music, is easy to break down when one considers similar experimentation upon an instrument. Traditional patterns of composition such as form, tonality and harmony can easily be subverted, although to ignore such elements is to neglect the mode of expression for which such devices were created.

 

There is a large amount of shared gestural capacity between electronic and instrumental music, although at times the methods of creation may be very different, the overall effect can be similar. A timpani roll into an orchestral tutti A minor chord exhibits strong musical similarities with a reversed door slam moving into the frozen9 and filtered sound of a pane of glass shattering. The emotive and dynamic (and potentially the frequency) contents can match. It is largely the modes of delivery that differ, most apparently the presence or absence of notes (in the classical understanding of the term) as shown in the gestural writing in the opening of the third movement of Polarities.

 

The concepts of pitch and harmony are nonetheless of fundamental importance within both the instrumental and concrète traditions. The use of concrète sounds as opposed to purely synthesised sounds ensures that every note or object possesses its own internal harmonicity due to the physical effects of overtones, resonance and reverberance. This holds true from clear sounds such as a resonating wine glass or oboe, more richly structured sounds, a trumpet or a sea gull cry for example, through to more complex noise based sounds such as a drum, bell, or a passing train. These are all bounded by the same physical laws. Furthermore (as exemplified in Polarities) the implied resonances at the octave, twelfth, sixteenth etc. within sonorous musique concrète events create a degree of harmonic tension and a sense of unification between numerous disparate but consonant sounds.10 These factors enforce great infra-compositional similarities in spectral and harm- onic structure between electroacoustic composition and tonal orchestration in a manner not always perceived, due to the striking dissimilarities of instrumentation, focus, and musical delivery. 

 

There is much that links electroacoustic and instrumental music beyond their etymological classification. There are also profound differences. Both are powerful vehicles of auditory expression, but are nonetheless limited in scope. Orchestral instruments are innately biased towards western notated music not only in terms of repertoire and construction, but also to an extent through the training and cultural norms of their practitioners. This is a fact that should not be overlooked when composing for such resources. Electroacoustic composition can bypass this lattice effect and is capable of a far wider degree of control over timbre, pitch and the temporally detailed elements of modern composition, although it lacks many of the facets such as live performance, perceived interaction, reinterpretation and dynamism so highly valued in the instrumental field. These two elements can, and should be brought together, with care. Both have a long tradition, arguably stemming from the same root, but are also incredibly disparate in their methods. It is this disparity that makes such a union possible, where one mode of working is weaker, the other can contribute, and where one excels the other can recede. It is only when this dynamism is harnessed into a singularity of musical purpose that a portfolio such as this one can hope to achieve meaningful, fulfilling and ultimately enjoyable music.

 

 

2.         Commentaries

 

The following commentaries present the pieces chronologically and I therefore suggest that the pieces of music be listened to in the same order. The pieces of music are meant to stand alone as well as part of a group so a listening order outside of the context of this text could be seen as arbitrary.

 

             2.i        The Way I Saw It              

                                                

             Violin, fixed media and MIDI tempo track

 

The Way I Saw It low bit rate MP3 version

 

The Way I Saw It was composed with a view to satisfying the original violin and electronics remit of this project. It also works as a stepping off point into the wider area of the following works and provides a logical compositional and philosophical basis for later developments. The piece was composed around the idea of a square. At its centre is a point of equilibrium and at each opposing side lies an equally opposing concept. To the left and right we have order and chaos, and at the top and bottom we find real and synthetic. These values could be substituted for many polar extremes such as pitched or unpitched, but the two sets chosen permit enough scope to experiment with many of the ideas discussed in the introduction. The music can be pushed and pulled towards any of the edges or corners of the square, but always pulls back towards the central point of equilibrium.            

 

 

 

 

The way I Saw It 'square concept'

 

The sounds used within the piece were recorded largely in the field, working from home to a waterfall in the mountains. A number of other sources have been used such as the sound of the violin, recorded into the fixed track, to provide a form of link between the two parts such as in bar 15 (see 1.iii). The sounds were edited and augmented in the studio and gradually arranged to form the basic shape of the piece. Structurally it follows very ‘classical’ principals, falling into a kind of sonata form. This is a deliberate step, as it permits the use of some otherwise quite unusual sounds whilst nevertheless providing a feeling of comfort and progression to the listener.

 

The two parts, violin and tape, were developed simultaneously. At times the electroacoustic side came first, and the violin part was crafted around it. At others the violin part was written and recorded and used as a template for studio composition. In addition to this there are also a number of places where the violin has been recorded into the tape part and treated with similar processes to the other sounds. In the instrumental part there are places where the performer is free to improvise on a set of loosely defined pitches, and violin techniques such as sul ponticello distortion draw the instrumental sound closer to that of the tape part (see score). All of which helps to blur the differences between the two parts.

 

The work was produced in conjunction with a MIDI tempo track. This is in no way a constant click track as used in pop recordings, but it has several advantages. Firstly it permits accurate plotting of the structure over time, and, it facilitates a far greater accuracy of synchronisation between player and recording than could be achieved by familiarity and counting alone. In retrospect this way of working still results in a rather regimented rhythmical performance, hence the adoption and development of other techniques in later works. The score for the player was completed using a combination of notational and graphical techniques. For the most part the violin notation is standard, except where notes of an indeterminate pitch are indicated. These are shown by using only the stem of a note. This clearly indicates time value (in all instances in this work such notes happen to be a dotted minim or shorter) and suggests an approximate pitch to the player. This technique is used for two reasons; firstly in the places where it occurs; rhythm, timbre and texture are far more important than pitch, thus shifting the emphasis away from it. Secondly this notation provides an output for individual performance expression in an otherwise very rigidly ordered piece. The violin score is accompanied by a graphic reduction of the tape part, formatted to work as a two part score. The graphic was generated by using sonogram analysis  of the fixed part, and then mapping bar lines to this.  From this the main perceivable structures and events could then be traced to the score relative to the note spacing of the violin part, as opposed to the absolute timing of the tape. This was done in a codified manner providing more ‘musical’ information that could be perceived from an unmediated sonogram printout. Once the audio part was completed it was then transferred to laptop. Both the audio and the MIDI tempo file were loaded into a sequencing program, in this case Logic. This then provides an accurate playback medium that can be easily triggered from on stage, but with the use of the MIDI clock an accurate tempo display to work to.

 

Intrinsically The Way I Saw It works as a piece of music or sonic art. This is especially true in its live form with diffusion, as opposed to simply performer plus laptop. However, the rigidity of synchronisation required to perform it well can, potentially, detract from the feeling of a live performance, and, although this is obviously mitigated by improvisational elements and the act of diffusion, many performances with tape carry with them more of the air of a feat of slight of hand and less of a truly musical experience for both listener and performer.11 In  spite of these potential worries the piece has always been well received. See 4.i for a list of performances of this and subsequent works.

            

             2.ii       Enough~?

 

             Clarinet and live electronics

Enough~? low bit rate MP3 version    

Enough~? is a piece for Clarinet and live electronics. It was created through a combination of standard acoustic composition and Max/MSP programming software. There are some fundamental differences between this work and others that are included here. The main one is that, unlike the other electronic pieces Enough~? is a completely live piece, and in this respect presents a far higher degree of flexibility than other fixed medium or mixed works. Not only is the tempo of the piece controlled by the performer, as opposed to the synchronisation to tape required for The Way I Saw It, but the material for the electronic part is generated by the clarinet in performance. In this way the fine details of the electronic part, such as timbre and intonation, change with each performance as well as each performer. Combined with this there are a number of patches designed to interact with the performer controlling processing parameters, and in some very specific cases randomising the processing parameters of events. The effects of these changes are far greater than one would at first expect, as a sensitive player will react to the changes in musical content around them, thus playing will be guided in a specific direction of mood or energy. The same is true of the electronic part to a progressively larger extent as the player cumulatively reacts to the computer’s ‘reaction’ to them.

 

Enough~? was created on, and partly performed by laptop, running copies of Max/MSP and the Finale notation software. The electronic and acoustic part were worked on literally side by side, with the audio output of Finale being fed directly into Max/MSP to give a passable working impression of the sonic possibilities and results that the processing was giving. The process of composition was helped greatly by clarinettist Sioned Eleri Roberts, who has since performed the work and whose assistance and patience was most helpful.

 

The clarinet part revolves around a melodic and rhythmic framework set down in the first 32 bars. Within the piece itself there is experimentation using rhythm as a structural element. The work is governed by the movement of the beat. The first section is lively and agitated (a 4/4 9/8 4/4 11/8 cycle) the second is peaceful and tranquil (4/4 thoughout), and the third battles to resolve these two conflicting emotional and rhythmical states changing time inconsistently as the battle towards an equilibrium continues. Finally the work settles into a stable 9/8 which, over four bars, adds up to exactly the same number of quaver beats as the opening passage. Although a metrical rhythmic framework is not strictly necessary for this style of music, it makes performance, reading, and notation less problematic.

 

Within this framework the melodic material is developed and expanded following the pattern layed down by the rhythm, whilst trying to maintain an air of freedom and spontaneity. As a result there are a number of complex rhythms over, and at times obscuring, the basic pulse. Along with this there are number of quasi improvisatory passages taking previous material and reusing it in a slightly altered manner, for example at the beginning of the third section bar 129-133, as well as the introduction of seemingly completely new material bar (241-end). In addition to this, a number of extended techniques have  been  included  such  as  key  clicks  and  multiphonics12 in order  to  further  extend the sonic range of the clarinet bringing it away from the sound world commonly associated with the instrument.

 

The Max/MSP programming was designed to augment and complement the sound of the clarinet score. In some places it simply serves a canonic function storing incoming audio data and playing it back when appropriate, in other places it carries out more complex tasks as illustrated in the sub-patch shown below. In this particular patch the sound is going directly into the computer. The incoming data is subject to pitch and volume analysis,13 the results of which are then modified and used to control the parameters of a comb filtering patch. This in turn processes the other half of the audio data for output to the speakers. Some of the outgoing sound is then sent via an attenuated feedback loop back into the comb filter, thus further re-enforcing its effect. This is simply one sub-patch out of a large number of patches involved in this piece.

 

Comb filtering patch [b154-147e21]

 

 

 

Screen shot showing Enough~? Sub patch

 

Processing was triggered in a number of ways. The first and perhaps the most subtle was the triggering of patch changes by note analysis with the fiddle~ object. The other two ways employed in this piece were simple timing and MIDI triggering. MIDI triggering was the mainstay of these events. By using a keyboard sustain pedal (chosen because of its light response and easy availability) in conjunction with the midiin object it was possible to make a programme that simply changed patch incrementally every time the pedal was pressed. This makes for a very elegant and simple performance system, only requiring a pedal on stage and an interface to the computer. Events that followed on closely from a synchronised trigger which did not need to be absolutely accurate, such as starting a sound with a very long attack portion, could often be set to trigger automatically after 5000 ms. using count or the delay object. This meant that there was less demand on the player and on the hardware, with very little loss of accuracy or effect if employed judiciously and in close conjunction with synchronised events. In addition to this the computer operator/diffuser can monitor which patch is currently in use, and override the pedal if required. It is entirely possible for a clarinettist to set up and perform this piece with computer, absolutely ‘solo’.

 

The subservient nature of the electronic part is fundamental to the sampling method of composition, due to the real-time/canonic nature of the act of processing. No matter how intricate the machinations or how powerful the computer, the electronic part is forced into temporal, musical and expressive second place unless the computer is used as a generative synthesiser or plays back pre-recorded material. Enough~? proved to be a useful first step into live processing, and a gateway into object based programming and working with other performers.

  

             2.iii     Harp Set        

 

             Sampled harp, octophonic sound and moving image.

 

 

low bitrate stereo version 

 

Harp Set was my first experiment in working with 8 channels. As such it is an exploration into the use of surround sound, employing instrumental sounds in a purely electronic construct, combined with a strong visual focus as expounded above. It was written specifically for the 2007 Bangor New Music Festival and is designed to take advantage of the octophonic diffusion system that was being developed (2006-7) under the auspices of Electroacoustic Wales. Thanks are due to Dr. Tim Porter for his advice on matters mathematical and fractal.

 

The piece is based on the ‘carpet’ or ‘square’ devised by Sierpinsky.14 In layman's terms there are two squares, one 1/3 of the other in size. This smaller square is then duplicated reduced in size by 1/3 again (i.e. to 1/9 of the original) and moved within the space. This shift is defined as a move of 3 times the size of the said new square along any combination of the x - y axis. for example if the new square is 1 cm long (based on a previous set 3 cms. long) then all 8 1 cm. squares will be placed 3 cm away from the original. This process is then repeated on the 8 1/9th squares to make 64, 1/27th squares and so on ad infinitum. Harp Set is restricted to the first 4 generations of this process. See illustration, the notated score, and the mathematical description below.

 

            

Harp Set formula

 

 

Harp Set main theme before transposition, augmentation or diminution.

 

This construct was then used as a basis for musical composition. The main motif was composed and was then assigned to the central square. This was recorded from sampling software (Kontakt 2) rather than utilising a ‘real’ harp, as in the later material it would be physically impossible to play at the required speed (up to 480 bpm.) or in some cases at the required pitches. By manipulating the MIDI data it was then possible to apply transformations to the auditory material, similar to that which Sierpinsky had to the visual. With each new generation the theme was doubled in speed, and as the squares move higher up the visual field so the melody was transposed up, or down if lower. Given that the spatial generational shift works around a 1:3 ratio so does the pitch shift. The 3 different heights of 2nd generation squares are represented by transpositions of 18, 0 and -18 semitones respectively. The 3rd generation have pitches 24, 18, 12, 6, 0, -6, -12... For every 4th generation step there is a 2 semitone shift in pitch, beyond which the concept starts to become musically, if not physically, untenable. From this it was then quite plausible to build an accurate representation of the Sierpinsky carpet in sound.

 

Spatially the music reflects the physical movements of the visual image. Making use of the octophonic set-up, it is possible to place the audience in the centre of the visual field, so that any changes in the visual image are analogous to those of the auditory (provided that the audience is situated relatively centrally). If an object goes up the screen, so the sound goes to the front of the hall, if it goes left so does the sound image.

 

 

Diagram showing the first four generations of the fractal process.

 

 

Diagram showing the relationship between the visual and auditory space.

 

At 0’56” the main theme is introduced, diffused by pitch around the audience who are siting centrally within a circle of 8 speakers. The notes are band filtered via MIDI so that each speaker has a range of up to a fourth. As a result each speaker only plays a number of disjointed pitches, however, the effect of them all working simultaneously is to create the sensation of being inside the main theme.

 

After this statement of the theme the audio field is matched exactly to the visual field. Within the previous diagram the audience would hear 3 sets of melody: the 1st generation in the centre; the low 2nd generation sounds behind them; the originally pitched 2nd generation material beside them and the high 2nd and 3rd generation sounds from in front.

 

Spatial effects were achieved by using a combination of Pro Tools, Kontakt 2, Rewire, and Max/MSP. Individual ‘squares’ of melody were realised using the Kontakt 2 software and sequenced via Pro Tools. These were then run through a version of the Bangor Audio Tools  (BAT) application   which  was  edited  to  include  a jpeg image of the  carpet over which mouse and cursor movements could be traced. This spatialised information was then fed by the Rewire protocol back into Pro Tools.

 

Initially the carpet was voiced incrementally from ‘square one’, up to the full four generations. This proved to be as predictable and symmetrical as the initial image. As music occupies a very different experiential time domain to the visual, this proved to be unacceptable. Instead, different aspects of the pattern are used to build up different facets of the piece, working towards a final build up of the entire pattern. Accompanying this, there are a number of more processed sounds all of which are based on the harp. This provides a greater sense of variety in terms of timbre, emotional and spectral content, as well as affording a degree of freedom into a rather contrived system. It is the decisions described in the last few paragraphs that rule the emotional content of the piece. There is an underlying emotional current there. It ebbs and flows and has its own high points and facets but it is not written about any particular set of events or subjects. Rather it is as much of a construct as the rest of the piece, but this time instead of evolving on a strictly mathematical basis the music started from that point and was then guided into places that sounded pleasing or interesting. The material itself covers a number of different ‘tonal’ areas. The main theme itself is very melodic and rhythmical although some of the transpositions are somewhat more abstract or avant-garde in their connotations, such as the step up 18 semitones (a compound tritone). Here we have both ends of the spectrum the dark and the light, just as in the video element. In this respect it is a truly abstract work.

 

The video element was created in tandem with the audio. As new elements were added within the Pro Tools session, such as the introduction of the second generation squares a note was made of the time code of this, both as a marker within the software and on paper. From this a story board was then compiled. The initial images were created on Photostudio and were animated on iMovie. By necessity the video works around the cutting and crossfading of a large number of static images in a manner not dissimilar to mainstream animation. It is effective largely because of the simplicity and uncluttered representation of the sound and image. The video was then run alongside the audio within Pro Tools and re-edited to ensure the tightest sync possible. The audio was then compressed by element/track and a small amount of reverb was added. This is common practice within most commercial music  however this application is not particularly widespread and even viewed with suspicion within this genre, as it is reasonable to expect the work to sound as the composer intended from the studio. In moderation mastering is a useful ‘finishing’ process. All subsequent works exist in a number of mixes, one as a concert mix with a full dynamic and frequency range and at least one other mix, more attuned to working on a home system. The ‘home’ versions have been created by boosting the RMS by way of parallel compression, and a slight EQ tip up to boost midrange clarity and bass response. Eight channel versions have also been flattened to stereo. This has been achieved by panning them into a 4 channel format (L, R, Ls, Rs) using simple trigonometry to try to ensure ‘correct’ placement, adding a slight reverb and high frequency cut to the satellite speakers to add a greater depth and then summing L+Ls and R+Rs into stereo. In some cases such as that of Postcards from Home there also exists a third mix designed for .mp3 internet streaming via sites such as www.myspace.com.

 

As there is very little software (especially at the time of writing) that reliably plays 8 channel audio and video, it was necessary to create something that did. As a result a program was written that would take a Quicktime movie file (.mov) and play it in sync with an 8 channel interleaved audio file (.aiff) over the a specified audio interface (see Appendix C DVD 1). The application is relatively inflexible but it is gives a very tight synchronisation, has proven to be very stable, and delivers sound and audio to the maximum quality available on the system on which it is running.

 

Harp Set is an exploration of the instrumental within the electronic and addresses one of the key visual issues of electroacoustic composition discussed above in sections 1. iii and iv, providing a sense of causality (or corroboration at the very least). Musically, it bridges between the tonal and the gestural, something that will be shown to be of great importance for the successful amalgamation of the electronic and instrumental. Intrinsically, Harp Set provides a staged visual element and an apparently connected surround electroacoustic element.

 

             2.iv      Postcards from Home          

 

             8 channel fixed medium

 

Postcards fom Home low bit MP3 version (Stereo)

Postcards from Home was written as a response to a request for a piece for the Sonic Arts Research Centre ( SARC) in Belfast. It is my first attempt at a fully integrated octophonic acousmatic piece. Harp Set proved a useful foray into the world of multichannel work but by its nature cannot be defined as acousmatic even in the loose sense that it has come to be applied. Postcards from Home is a work intended to develop skills in utilising the forces available in a solely 8 channel (i.e. non-instrumental) scenario. It is reasonable to assume that a degree of technical proficiency is required in both the electronic and instrumental fields in order to take full advantage of their joint possibilities. Postcards from Home works with more traditionally electroacoustic techniques than any of the other pieces in this portfolio but in doing so attempts to create a ‘melodically’ and ‘harmonically’ rich piece from non-instrumental sounds.

 

The ‘sonic postcard’ concept has been around for some time.15 However the temptation as a result of moving into a new house at the time of composition was too great, and this form was experimented with. The overriding musical aesthetic of the concert was to be more of the concrète/acousmatic persuasion as opposed to ‘soundscape’. It soon becomes apparent that these two schools of thought are not as contradictory as they at first appear. A number of sounds were collected from around the area, except for thunder claps16 which could not be obtained to order, and then used as the basis for composition. The naturalistic feel of the start builds on the experience gained with The Way I Saw It but in this case the focus remains on the recorded sounds rather than shifting away to the instrumental.

 

Structurally, the piece is designed to open a concert, and as a result can be described as a through-composed wedge shape. This statement can be applied to a number of parameters most notably with the volume and number of voices gradually increasing through the piece to open out into a dramatic fanfare effect with the final rolls of thunder (see Appendix A for sonogram and waveform analysis). Within this, the material oscillates between areas of familiar ‘arranged’ sounds that are often left relatively unprocessed, relying instead on a more concrète style of sound presentation, whilst also pushing out into areas of more electronically generated or heavily processed explorations of the source material. A lot of the processing was achieved through fairly conventional means such as the G.R.M. tools comb filter or freezing plugins, but in many cases large amounts of parameter automation were carried out, be that through programmed event changes, H.U.I. or auto-latch techniques in order to provide a greater sonic variety, and a more natural sensation of causality brought about by physical human control. There are a number of other elements that could be said to accompany these general movements, such as the introduction of a ‘block’ of rhythmical material, many of these are to do with achieving musical balance within the overall shape. The defining interest of the piece is in the sounds used, the transformations that they achieve, and emotional and sonic journey that the piece takes the listener on. 

 

In order to take full advantage of the diffusion system in  SARC a number of elements were recorded in the studio with 8 microphones mirroring the arrangement of a standard circle of 8 speakers. This is successful to a point. A lot of the time it proved impractical to record with microphones far enough apart to create much noticeable separation in sound placement and erecting baffles created problems of reflected sound and EQ coloration. This, coupled with the sheer impossibility of getting a forest into the studio, resulted many of the sounds being recorded in stereo and then processed with the BAT to create 8 channel events.

 

In situ in  SARC the piece worked well with the five layers of speakers. Performance was essentially an act of balancing, ensuring that the more bass heavy elements had the impression of being routed in the basement and that some of the more high frequency sounds had the space to sparkle overhead, and tutti for the end. The only notable exception to this arrangement was a circle of 8 speakers set up to run from hard left, overhead to hard right and under the feet back to the left again. This was used at the very start where the rotating and nature of the material suits this approach.

 

Whilst the surround method of using 8 channels is becoming more widespread, and indeed 16 and 24, such localised spatialisation and rigid formatting is not suited to the progressively larger performance theatres we are beginning to see such as SARC and ZKM, and that a more fluid approach may be called for to fully take advantage of such systems.

  

             2.v      Con-chords

 

             8 channel fixed medium

Con chords low bit rate MP3 version (Stereo)

Con-chords is an electroacoustic piece which draws exclusively on the following excerpts for orchestral sounds and textures as its compositional material:

 

BERG: 3 Orchesterstücke, Op. 6

BARTOK: Violin Concerto No. 2, BB117 - Movements. 2 and 3

ELGAR: The Dream Of Gerontius, Op. 38 - Movement 21. Softly & Gently

MESSIAEN: Des canyons aux étoiles - Movement 1. ‘Le Désert’

 

(permission sought from copyright holders 10/08/09)

 

 

These samples were used in order to create an electroacoustic piece that draws on the sound world of the twentieth century symphony orchestra, utilising a wide range of timbre, whilst still retaining many of the traits of standard orchestral writing. As such the sounds are a source in the acousmatic sense rather than being intended as quotes or a form of explicit reference.

 

Due to the musical and harmonic strength of this material careful handling is required. A large amount of creative input is necessitated on the part of the electroacoustic composer when dealing with such well known sources to validate the intrusion into the musical integrity of these works. It is a perfectly acceptable home musical experience to play back a CD recording of any of the sources above, without any incursion by a third party composer. It is therefore imperative that as basis for composition such resources be handled delicately, respectfully, and yet with enough audacity and technique to convince the listener of the merits of such an undertaking.

                        

As a result of this philosophy the work opens with a largely unprocessed but carefully edited fanfare figure, placing the listener instantly into a strongly acoustic listening scenario. Within this remit the sounds are treated in a number of ways, using techniques one might regard more as editing such as repetition or reversal rather than the more heavy processing. This approach continues throughout the piece where sounds are sometimes found almost in their natural state. Often, on close inspection it becomes apparent that they have been altered quite significantly although still retain some of their intrinsic nature. The violin extract around 2’20” is a case in point. Whilst retaining its signification as an acoustic instrument, the violin sound has been repeated, delayed, pitch shifted and equalised resulting in the phrase being extended out until at around 2’35” when it is fragmented into the ensuing electronic texture.

 

In a some cases the original extracts have been processed to the point of being unrecognisable. This has been achieved in four main ways: Firstly by drawing on a number of plugins; notably Digidesign’s Recti-fi and Moogerfooger Lowpass and G.R.M.’s FREQ Warp to drastically alter timbral qualities such as at 7’30”. Secondly many objects were edited in the time domain by compressing, expanding or freezing to create ‘new’ material. Sounds have also been spatialised within the octophonic field by placement within Pro Tools or external processing in Max/MSP. In addition to this, processed sounds were edited and triggered via sampler thus creating not only new sounds but new passages such as that underlying the texture from 1’25” to 2’40”.

 

The act of using sonically very rich but relatively stable sounds for processing led to a number of interesting results. The great variety of information contained within a tightly controlled window of timbre, pitch and dynamic meant that when processing to extremes there were often very coherent results to be found within the fine detail of events. Time expansion by factors of up to 64 times the original length led to the uncovering of musical artefacts such as harmonics and articulations previously unnoticed in the recording, and transpositions and spectral manipulation also yielded unexpectedly pertinent results.

 

Even when heavily processed the work needed to retain a natural feel. As a result of this, wherever possible, processing automation has been rendered by hand as opposed to with line drawn parameters and has been ‘performed’ on the computer in the same way that it is possible to speak of playing a software sampler. Taking this to a deeper level the work draws on transpositions around classical perfect intervals of 4th, 5th and octave for the reason that they combine well harmonically. This fact couples with the notion that a culturally informed listener would expect to hear such intervalic relationships played on the real instruments depicted in this electronic piece.

 

Con-chords sets up a tension between the quasi-realistic sound worlds of the edited samples and the alien nature of the processed material. This spirals throughout the piece creating something that could be regarded as sonata form, although it is more the result of conflict and implied resolution between two defined ideas. This sentiment echoes much of the philosophy of the piece. It is intrinsically quite traditional; it draws from established sound worlds, exhibits traits of classical form and carries emotional as well as musical motifs within it. It demonstrates how electroacoustic music can fit into an acoustic context but also how notated music can be understood as a gestural medium as well as the result of notated composition. The work also shows how hard it is to achieve both of these phenomena in one object at one time as expressed in 1.ii.

 

We are no longer simply dealing with the perceived transformation of a sonic entity from one form to another as outlined by spectro-morphology, but, in addition to this, from one perception of musical discourse to that of a differing standpoint. Con-chords shows that discourse and theoretical structures can be objectified. They can be transformed, they can be strengthened and they can be broken down, provided that there is an alternative system with which to interact.

                     

             2.vi      Seasons

 

             SSAATB choir and surround electronics (Text by Graeme Harper)

 

             Download pdf score

 

Seasons was written as a response to a commission by Llandudno Festival of the Arts. The brief was to create a piece of work for choir and electronics lasting for approximately fifteen minutes. The music is based upon a poem written by Graeme Harper specifically for the piece, and is a very literal reflection of the overall theme of the festival; that of the seasons. Within the writing there was a deliberate attempt to leave leeway for musical creativity, and it presents numerous opportunities and challenges at a variety of levels.

Seasons

 

                                                  New flocks, sighted on old stones

                                                  Recall a cycle, oceans swelling

                                                  The teetering tones of trees

                                                  And in the blossom ends bloom.

                                                  A child and mother,

                                                  Two beginnings, two endings

                                                  Meet between movements.

                                                  Larger than one life, larger than you

                                                  Or me, together, apart

                                                  Two, or four, or many cycles more.

                                                  Until one day, one day,

                                                  Away it starts, again.

                                                  New flocks on old stones,

                                                  Beginning and ending, many more.

 

© Graeme Harper 2008.

Duplicated with permission.

 

The music is based upon this text and this interaction starts at the structural level. The repetition of the ‘new flocks on old stones’ imagery implies a sense of recapitulation being both ‘beginning and ending’. This analogy is further exploited in that it serves to create an arched form, moving from the atonality of bars 47-71 and 217-226 into the fugal ‘summer’ figure around bars 106-121. Implicit within the structural similarity is the concept of a direct literal or causal link between the text, choral part and electronics, or to condense the classifications further, between music and lyrics.

 

There are a number of places where the electronic part is used to reinforce the reality created by the text. For instance ‘the teetering tones of trees’ are accompanied by bird song, and the winter section has a ‘wind’ sound within it (albeit wind created in the studio due to the practical difficulties of recording such a sound). With the recognition of the source and its identification with the text, the elements of text and music are pulled into a mutually supportive role. In a number of cases such as the two mentioned, the sounds also possess musical as well as environmental implications, the bird song being transformed by the use of lowpass and comb filtering to become a textural element. This demonstrates the movement beyond the structural and mimetic use of concrète sounds into the realms of the more traditionally musical.

 

Within the ‘musical’ listening space a dialogue is set up between the choir and electronics which is at times complementary, but occasionally antagonistic. Sonically, the two parts start from a very similar point. The opening features an atmospheric and winter-like soundscape based upon a wind sound which focuses on a number of pitches, most especially that of a written E. The choir then enters quietly upon a unison E, and the similarities between the wind of the electronics and the air flow of the voice are clear. From this point of unison the two parts diversify and maintain a relationship not unlike music and image, in that they are symbiotic but not necessarily the same at a particular given moment. This is especially true around the fugue where the timbre of the two parts are vastly different, representing a mid point through the piece, but retaining a unity through their matched energy. The analogy with music and film can be further extended in that both the vocal and the electronic media have their own particular strengths and weaknesses; different effects and intentions can be realised by each, where something cannot be achieved musically, environmentally, structurally or emotively with one, it can often be done, with the other, or by a synergy of both.        

 

Time constraints necessitated that the vocal score was prepared before much of the electroacoustic material was created. This was not excessively problematic in that the score was written with an electroacoustic part in mind, and in many places written on the rough score in a similar manner to The Way I Saw It. Following this pattern of working three MIDI/.wav files were created from the notation of the vocal part. The first of which was to tempo, the second of which was twenty crotchets per minute under tempo and the third, twenty crotchets above the expected performance speed. The first file was used as a template to set the electroacoustic part. The other two were retained to rehearse the performance of the electroacoustic part in the studio at different speeds and to ensure that the various sound files would still maintain musical coherence when triggered at different time intervals. Seasons was created in 8 channel surround but was then converted into 4 for the concert (left, right, left back and right back by utilising the 8 channel file and the 4.0 pan control in Pro Tools). This was necessary owing to the limitations of the performance venue, equipment and budget.

 

The electroacoustic part was developed in layers of events. These were bounced as individual objects. Having individual sound files for separate events greatly increases the capacity for synchronisation between choir and electronics, due to the fact that a given file can be triggered in line with a given performance and is not fixed in the time domain as it would be in a ‘tape’ piece. This approach proves useful although it does have limitations. Most pressing is the need to ensure that a slow performance does not run out of electronic material. This can be resolved in a number of ways. Firstly, ensuring that sound files overlap gives a greater flexibility of time base, secondly percussive and resonant objects can be manufactured to include reverb tails rather than stopping abruptly all of the time, and thirdly blending the timbre of the electronics with the choir can blur the sound world sufficiently to mask moments of disjuncture. It is still easier than trying to persuade an amateur choir to keep to time with a click track and arguably a more musical undertaking. (See below for screen shot of overlapping regions prior to file export.)

 

Such an approach required an interface. Were it only 2 sets of stereo audio files running concurrently a quasi DJ approach and two varispeed sound sources could be used. Unfortunately this was not the case. As a result of this the Key Linked Audio Noise Generating System17 was  developed  which  is  a  computer program designed to  facilitate sound file triggering in installation or other live scenarios. It was programmed using Max/MSP and permits the user to assign any given audio file (up to 4 interleaved channels of 64 bit; aiff, sd II, NeXT/SUN(.au), wave, and Raw Data files) to any given letter key of the keyboard for playback. For instance if the sound of a casserole dish were asigned to the letter c, the dish would sound every time the letter c was pressed (in addition to any other sounds already initiated by other keys). Just as any sound file can be started or re-triggered by pressing its related key, in this case c for casserole, so any sound can be stopped by keying alt and the appropriate key for instance, alt+c. Although this is not very important for short duration sound events it becomes a very significant consideration when dealing with longer more drone-based sounds. As the software sources audio directly from the designated hard drive, the upper limits of audio file length become largely governed by system specification and performance. This can lead to very long audio files, coupled with the real possibility of accidental triggering necessitated some form of file specific stop button.

 

 

 

Screen shot showing the overlapping of sound files for Seasons.

 

The audio interface structure was for pragmatic reasons built around an Emagic 6 out 2 in interface. Therefore the first 4 channels are used to provide audio outputs for a (non-specialist-event-friendly) 4.0 surround sound system. Whilst this obviously does not take full advantage of more high specification systems, it can provide something close to the overall effect on a fraction of the equipment. This leaves the last 2 outputs of the interface free. These were allocated the role of P.F.L. cueing. Any given sound is summed to stereo and sent to these outputs by simply pressing the shift key and the relevant letter, so that c plays the casserole dish whilst C plays the same sound on the P.F.L. channels only. The ‘rehearsal letters’ in the score show where a given letter is pressed.

 

The software was first used to create an installation as part of an event - Yr Alban Hefin, in the Gwydr forest, it has also since been adapted to be live triggering, processing and diffusion interface as part of a composition project working with young people with special needs.

 

In rehearsal and performance with the choir, a number of factors could be noticed. Most apparent was the very differing spectral content between studio based music and live musicians in a performing, rather than recording, environment. Approximately 3-5 dB of attenuation was required in the 4 kHz region to balance the electronics to the choir and to enable the extreme bass and treble capacity to come through without drowning the choir with high-mid range frequencies. Also of note is the narrow crest ratio18 of the choral dynamic range when compared to the capabilities of 24 bit sampling (although this would increase with a larger group), and a boost to the R.M.S. level of signal of the sound files was necessitated after the first rehearsal. Within the live setting the role of reverb played an important part. The natural reverberation of the building helped to blend the vocal and electroacoustic parts into one another in a similar way to its use in recorded music production, hinting at extending the ideas outlined in 1.iv. Far from thinking about the electroacoustic part as an extension of scoring and orchestration techniques it becomes tempting rather to think about instrumental and notated music in terms of mixing techniques, regarding the layering of frequencies, depth and presence, spatialisation and stereo spread as just as vital as, if not more important than, the attention to chord/object voicing or harmonicity.

 

The work was performed using a four channel set-up including a coincident pair of microphones aimed at the choir to enable some of the choral sound to further blend with the electronic, by sending it at a very low level through the speakers. Little diffusion took place in that the work is spatialised within the sound files. However, the triggering of the synchronous audio files with the choir and the delicate balancing of volume (via faders) and timbre (via EQ and speaker placement) required to make the music work, still leaves much to the electroacoustic performer.

 

Regrettably, due to battery failure in recording equipment during the concert (except for a video recording made by one of the choir members of poor sound quality) there is no record of the performance. There follows a review / critique by Roy Woods (M.A. electro-acoustic composition student) who was in attendance at the first performance (written at my request as a result of these issues). It is hoped that the work can be recorded with live choir in the future.

 

Seasons, Ed Wright

St John’s Methodist Church, Llandudno. 1st November 2008.

 

Seasons, a piece for choir and live surround electronics, received its premiere as part of the autumn session of the Llandudno Festival of Music and the Arts. The piece was specially commissioned for the festival and featured Amici del Canto – a local choir – with the composer, Ed Wright, performing live at the mixing desk. The electroacoustic elements had been pre-recorded and ‘treated’ (to use Brian Eno’s terminology) as part of the compositional process. Nigel Shaw conducted the choir, allowing the composer to concentrate on triggering the electronic sounds and sending them to one (or more) of the five [four ed.] channel speaker system set up around the inner perimeters of the church.

 

The overall acoustic of St John’s helped enormously to diffuse the sound and add a quantum of reverberation, without overwhelming or muddying the sound. The electronic elements were, therefore, a part of the overall mix, rather than discrete elements poking into the listeners’ consciousness from specific corners of the church. This worked well in creating an overall ambience and an integrated sonic experience.

 

The piece was, to this listener, impressionistic; it was described as notionally following the four seasons through a year, “….. winter giving way to spring, and a new world gradually emerging to the light….” (according to the programme notes). This it did, inasmuch that the piece was not performed in four separate distinct parts, such as in Vivaldi’s famous work, more as a gradual segue through the impressions of a year unfolding. I thought this worked well, rather than clumsily underlining “This is winter!” etc.

 

The text sung by the choir was written for the piece and, although difficult to follow from the actual singing, could be read in the programme notes.  I was somewhat ambivalent about the words, feeling that the sound of the choir was sufficient to make the text possibly extraneous. The sound of the choir itself, in the church acoustic, was sufficient to carry the piece. I suspect that the music would have had greater impact with a much larger choir – allowing the music to have greater dynamic range using sections of the choir to build to a greater climax.

 

The electronic sounds were of interest. They, in the most part, worked well with the choral sound, in some cases underpinning with low bass sounds and in others adding the natural sounds of thunder and birdsong. I think the use of birdsong – perhaps too loud in the mix, should have been more subliminal. In fact once or twice, there was an electronic sound from the rear of the church which didn’t quite fit the homogeneity of the whole work.

 

I enjoyed the piece. I thought it worked well – apart from the occasional identifiable ‘electronic’ sound from the rear channels. As was said beforehand: “It’ll probably be hated by lovers of choral music and hated by lovers of electronic music – satisfying neither audience.” It certainly was not the case to my ears, integrating well, without the electronics grating on the ear and standing out from the overall perception as a separate identity. In this way it succeeded very well.

 

Roy Woods

 

Duplicated with permission.

 

 

             2.vii     Polarities: Concerto grosso for orchestra and electronics

 

             Orchestra, eight channel electroacoustic music and live processing.

 

             listen to extracts online in stereo at http://www.myspace.com/virtual440 

            

             Download pdf score

                        

Polarities is the final piece in this portfolio and to some extent represents a culmination of much of the previous work. The work falls into a very classical 3 movement concerto format (i. On Points of Departure - Allegretto, ii. Cycle - Andante, iii. Tarantella - Vivace) and includes solo elements from seven orchestral instruments as well as the electronics, hence the the reference to ‘grosso’ in the title.

 

The piece is constructed around three main resources; those of the orchestra, live sound processing and eight channel electroacoustic music. Philosophically it is trying to prove (or disprove) many of the concepts and ideas set out in section 1 and therefore this commentary will focus more on the compositional process, as the conceptual framework has for the most part been stated previously. In some ways a lot of the work behind Polarities has already been explained and the work is a result of scaling up, culmination and a refinement of ideas and techniques used earlier in this portfolio.

 

Like The Way I Saw It this work was created on computer with the electronic and instrumental parts being formed in tandem. In many cases the instrumental part was also worked out on paper with the electronics drawn in as a graphic aide memoir but in addition to this there was the formulation of the processing element within Max/MSP. By necessity this had to be created last in the process, or at the very least, it had to be the final element within any given section due to the fact that the instrumental sound had to be present to be processed. Whilst this is slightly awkward, it is not overly problematic. In much the same way as a composer can mentally hear a given orchestration so it is possible to roughly approximate a given sound process. Thus, the Pro Tools session, Sibelius file and numerous pieces of manuscript paper became heavily annotated in order to bridge the gaps between the worlds.

 

The instrumental part is deliberately motivically strong. This not only helps to balance some of the strong, real world connotations of the electronic part but also enables the audience to grasp the nature of the work and its methods of development. Within Polarities the instrumental music is mostly tonal in that it relates strongly to the fifth and octave and to other touchstones of western art music, such as the tritone in bar 1. However it is also concerned with development in an electroacoustic manner. The opening of the third movement is a deliberate attempt to mimic downward pitch/time shifting and reversal. The end of the first movement emulates freezing or an ‘inf.’ reverb setting, and the use of the tune from bar 285 and 480 as a timbral and contextual transformation. If the music was too atonal this would could not be as clear, nor as sonically vibrant.

 

The ‘fixed’ part was created from a number of four channel and stereo recordings one of which was made most memorably standing waist deep in the sea. These were processed in Pro Tools and Max/MSP and orchestrated to create the mainstay of the electronic part of the work. Many of the processing techniques are similar to those used in Con-chords (see above) albeit carried out on largely non-instrumental sounds, with the intention of fitting them into an instrumental framework. These regions were layered using similar techniques to those used in Seasons, so as to create a number of overlapping sound objects to accompany the less temporally rigid orchestral material.

 

In addition to this a number of processing patches were created in Max/MSP to transform the sounds of a number of solo instruments which in combination with the electronics comprised the concertino part (flute, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, 1st horn, marimba and harp). The overall orchestral output is also processed and added to the ‘tape’ material to provide a tutti ripieno. In the live context the concertino sounds were captured by ‘close-mic’ techniques and the tutti with one microphone set back from the stage. In the studio, the output from Sibelius was used to feed developmental patches in order to check processing output. The instrumental processing consisted of a variety of techniques building on the work of Enough~?, from simple delays up to more complex pitch/volume interactive modulation patches. The processing was designed to augment the sounds from the orchestra and fixed part, so it was kept deliberately unobtrusive so as not to overpower the dialogue already created. On a pragmatic level this also meant that processing intensity could be held down in a live situation.

 

In order to make the project work in a live situation considerable work was required to build a performance interface. As previously stated the fixed part can be broken down into a number of objects and events; however they were too numerous to be playable with the KLANGS software, as there were more sound files than letters on a qwerty keyboard. Wishing to build on the success of the KLANGS approach another form of hardware interface was required. The answer was found in the form of a MIDI keyboard, providing six octaves (therefore over 66 possibilities and many permutations) and easy availability within a concert scenario. Each sound object was mapped to a key, as was each processing event, and with the use of the midiin and sfplay~ objects could be triggered simply by watching the conductor and playing the appropriate ‘note’ as indicated by the score at the correct time. Accidental triggering can be cancelled by holding down the sustain pedal and pressing the erroneous note. This creates a relatively simple interface for repeat performances with or without the composer present.

 

In performance Polarities draws strongly on the format first explored in Harp Set, and later developed musically in Postcards from Home and Con-chords. The audience is again seated within a circle of eight speakers with a strong visual/musical stimulus at the front, but in this instance, instead of being an animation apparently connecting with the music there is an orchestra. The orchestra is to be seated just outside the speakers i.e. with the front speakers on the very edge of the stage or close to this position, thus enabling a solid interaction and spatial conjoining of the sound worlds. To avoid excessive warping of mix and balance, speakers should be kept close to the walls and stage and out of the audience area, provided that an angle of 45 degrees is maintained between them. This ensures that rotational elements are not offset to any great degree, and given that the performance space is not too irregular, satisfactory results can be achieved with simple trigonometry. Experiments utilising time delays and volume attenuation have been undertaken but the effects have been found to be of minimal improvement in a ‘normal’ concert hall situation.

 

At its premiere, two sub woofers were added to improve bass response and impact, one at the front of the hall taking a sum feed from the front four speakers and one at the back, working in a similar manner. Two speakers were also placed on stage for the benefit of the orchestra, relaying a stereo feed of the audience’s eight speakers. This was more for the enjoyment and interaction of the orchestra rather than any synchronisational need for them to hear, however, the psychological effects of such matters should not be understated. As in the case of Seasons a small amount of high frequency attenuation of the fixed part was required. The work has since been given a repeat performance in London 7/11/09 in which similar observations were made inspite of the presence of a different orchestra, venue, speakers and mixing desk. A studio performance of Polarities was released by Blipfonica Records on the same day.

 

 

 

Polarities performance, the diffusion point, audience placement, front 2 speakers, microphone setup, front sub woofer and onstage monitoring are visible.

 

 

3. Conclusions

 

This body of work was, and is, an attempted integration of the fields of electroacoustic and instrumental music, ‘in an effort to create a singularity of performance and meaning’. There are individual works displaying movements towards this goal, and a number clearly showing the combination of forces required to meet it. The success or failure of these works from an artistic perspective is implicitly bound up with the cultural and social norms and expectations of the individual listener. This is not to say that judgement is therefore impossible as works can be viewed by those with expertise or compared to similar works that are held in general high regard. The reactions of concert audiences, radio listeners and repeat performances are also indicative of general success or failure in terms of accessibility and enjoyment (as in part attested to by the list of performances in 4.i).

 

I have attempted to contribute to the integration process and the development of this ‘mixed’ style; producing works (both experimental and commissioned), giving papers, running schools workshops, setting up music events, teaching and above all performing. It is very rare that musical trends and movements can be catalysed by a single work or composer, rather, history shows us that landmark moments tend to happen as a result of cumulative processes.

 

The combination of forces runs as a link through this portfolio and has a direct bearing on the sonic techniques and intricacies of each piece, and in many cases the juxtaposition of forces facilitates effects that could not be achieved in isolation. This concept is not an end in itself. Work has begun in synchronising electronic and ‘live’ music, in truly understanding the gestural use of space, and writing for and creating instrument/computer interfaces. Musical culture has yet to codify, normalise and absorb these innovations. There are many others. This is a time of great musical and technological progression and as yet society has not come to terms with the new capabilities afforded to it.

 

The work in this portfolio shows that unification is possible between these diverse materials and methods of working, also that there is much yet to be discovered in the details of numerous individual and composite elements and techniques, but that these are not an end in themselves. Each piece stands as music and has narrative, emotions and development external to the mode of musical delivery. In this context we have layers of media and methods of delivery which in turn contain other forms of information, these can be brought together, intertwined, juxtaposed and even set against each other ‘the medium is [not] the [only] message’.19

 

Through this body of work, at times produced under difficult circumstances, this writer has learned not only discipline, but also that in spite of all the rigours of art music and its various formats, that one needs to balance various elements into one entity. Such music requires not only the diversity of forces, intellectual application and cultural understanding, but also those things that drive the basic human condition such as love, fear, hunger and joy. Thus composing becomes more than simply the output vehicle for sounds, be they electronic, instrumental or both. It is when we can achieve this balance that integration and juxtaposition at an instrumental / electronic level can be truly successful in a musical sense. This is my intention.

 

Edward Wright, Penmaenmawr 2009.

 

 

End notes:

 

1  Wishart, T. On Sonic Art (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998),  p. 25.

2  Wishart, T. On Sonic Art (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998), p. 155.

3  Examples of this are numerous such as Pete Stollery’s Altered Images released on Legacies: Works from BEAST vol. 2 Various artists; (Sargasso, SCD 28046)

4 As is graphically depicted by Wittgenstein’s famous ‘Duck-rabbit’ to be found in Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations (Blackwell, 1993). Section XI part II.

5 Smalley, D and S. Emmerson (eds.) The Language of Electroacoustic Music (Macmillan, 1986) pp. 61-93.

6 Such as in Varèse E. (rev. 1927) Amériques (Hal Leonard Corp.)

7  Description paraphrased from Robert Normandeau 2008.

8 This should not always be assumed to be the case, as demonstrated by a number of the works of Jonty Harrison in which the eight channels are used more as eight stems or possibilities rather than eight physical locations. Such as can be seen in performances of Streams available on Harrison, J. Environs (empreintes DIGITALes, IMED 0788 DVD-A).

9 The word ‘frozen’ is used here in the temporal sense but also in reference to the freezing process/plugin developed by G.R.M.

10 Such as can be found in Smalley’s Wind Chimes on “Impacts intérieurs” Dennis Smalley empreintes DIGITALes IMED 0409 Tk. 5.

11 This unease is not the sole preserve of this writer, see Emmerson, S. Living Electronic Music (Ashgate, 2007) , pp. 107-8.

12  Fletcher, N. The Physics of Musical Instruments (Springer,1998) p. 144.

13 Analysis carried out using fiddle~ v1.2, and bonk~  v1.2 (University of California, 1994).

14 For further specialised details see: Falconer, K. Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley Blackwell, 1997).

15  e.g. Rob Mackay’s Postcards from the Summer on his as yet unpublished Soundworks CD made available by Mackay as a CD-R short run ‘demo’ disk.

16 Roll of thunder sourced from http://www.therecordist.com.

17 A slightly satirical nod towards Jonty Harrison's Klang, KLANGS software available to download from www.virtual440.com from spring 2010 (Mac OS) .

18 Katz, B. Mastering Audio (Focal Press,  2007), p. 322.

19 Refuting the sentiments of McLuhan, M. Understanding Media (Routledge, 1964).

 

4.         Public Output

 

The tables below list performances of works in this portfolio and works relating to them during the time of registration

 

            4.i        Live performances

 

 

Date Piece Event
9/3/05 The Way I Saw It Bangor New Music Festival
17/6/05 The Way I Saw It Sonic Arts Network-Expo
1/7/05 Passage (Sound/image installation) Art Forum, Antwerp
9/3/06 En Masse (stereo electroacoustic) Bangor New Music Festival
8/6/06 Botany (SATB choir) Llandudno Festival of the Arts
26/10/06 Enough~? Electroacoustic Wales
15/3/07 Harp Set Bangor New Music Festival
26/8/07 Broken Glass (String quartet electronics and image)
Passage & Harp Set
S.N.O.G. Fest (Snowdonia Nights Out Gazette)
25/10/07 Postcards from Home SARC - Queens University Belfast
15/11/07 Postcards from Home (revised) Electroacoustic Wales
28/2/08 Con-chords Bangor New Music Festival
13/3/08 Harp Set Risk of Shock
8/4/08 Harp Set PACE at DMU
28/6/08 Klangs project (live triggering/interactive event) Alban Hefin
26/8/08 The Way I Saw It & En Masse S.N.O.G. fest
1/11/08 Seasons Llandudno Festival of the Arts
28/2/09 Polarities Bangor University Symphony Orchestra
5/4/09 Castell (composition project with Ysgol Pendalar) Bangor New Music Festival
11/7/09 Con-Chords, En Masse, Passage & Postcards from Home Blipfonica, Speakers Corner
7/11/09 Polarities Philharmonia Britannica, St. James’ Piccadilly

 

             4.ii       Broadcast works

 

Date Piece Method
1/10/07 Botany Storm FM (student radio)
2/3/08 Broken Glass WFMU (internet radio)
5/6/08 Postcards form Home BBC Radio 1 Wales
18/10/08 Con-chords and Postcards from Home Coast/Champion FM with interview
5/4/09 Castell (composition project with BNMF and Ysgol Pendalar) Y Sioe Gelf S4C t.v.

 

            4.iii      Other academic / peer reviewed work

 

Date Event
1/9/07- Module co-ordinator / lecturer for UWB ‘Practical Music Technology’ and ‘Recording Techniques’ modules.
8/4/08 Performed and delivered paper on Harp Set in PACE, De Montford University.
25/6/08 Broken Glass performed and delivered as as part of ‘Religion and the Arts’ conference, Bangor University.
2/7/08 Con-chords achieves ‘mention’ at Prix Bourges

 

5.         Technical Resources

 

This list is a combination of university equipment and the composers’ home studio.

 

Function Make/model
Workstations Mac Pro quad core 3 GHz OSX.5 with Digidesign 96 IO PowerBook G4 12" with eMagic 6|2
Software

Pro tools 8 (including GRM tools classic ST, Waves gold TDM ), Max/MSP 5, BAT (Bangor Audio Tools),
Sibelius, iMovie, iDVD, Photo Studio, Logic Audio 6, Finale 2004, Sound Hack, Audio Sculpt.

Monitoring ATC SCM50A (main left and right), ATC SCM20A (surround) Genelec 7070A subwoofer.
Mixing desk Soundcraft Spirit Studio 16-8-2 Soundcraft M12.
Keyboard Yamaha SY99 with MOTU Fastlane USB interface.
Microphones AKG; 414, C1000s, C2000, Schoeps CM5U/MK4 Sure SM57, Rode NT1 and Samson C02.
Location recording Tascam HD-P2 and Zoom H2.

 

For live events a variety of equipment was used often incorporating some of the above, but for outside events other speakers / desks etc. have been used.

 

6.         Bibliography

 

 

             6.i        Written Material

  

Cox, C. & Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music (Continuum, 2004).

Bartlett, B. & J. Practical Recording Techniques (Focal Press, 2005).

Emmerson, S. (ed.) The Language of Electroacoustic Music (Macmillan, 1986).

Emmerson, S. Living Electronic Music (Ashgate 2007).

Falconer, K. Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley Blackwell, 1997).

Fauvel, Flood & Wilson (ed.) Music and Mathematics: From Pythagorus to Fractals (Oxford University Press, 2006).

Fletcher, N. The Physics of Musical Instruments (Springer,1998).

Katz, B. Mastering Audio (Focal Press, 2007).

McLuhan, M. Understanding Media (Routledge, 1964).

Rumsey, F. Spacial Audio (Focal Press, 2005).

Schopenhauer, A. The World as Will and Idea (Phoenix, 1995).

Toop, W. Ocean of Sound: Aether talk, ambeint sound and imaginary worlds (Serpent’s Tail, 1995).

Wishart, T. Audible Design: A plain and easy introduction to practical sound composition (Orpheus the Pantomime Ltd, 1994). 

Wishart, T. On Sonic Art  (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998).

Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations (Blackwell, 1993).

            

             6.ii       Websites

  

http://bangor.ac.uk/music/studios/BAT

http://www.digitalmusicarchives.com

http://www.therecordist.com

  

             6.iii      Scores

  

Berio, L.  Sequenza VI (Universal, 1967).

Holst, G. The Planets (Dover Publications Inc., 1916).

Ligeti, G. Lux Aeterna (Edition Peters, 1966).

Stravinsky, I. The Rite of Spring (Boosey and Hawkes, 1913).

Varèse, E.  Amériques (Hal Leonard Corp., 1913).

 

              6.iv      Recordings (CD and Audio DVD)

 

Boulez, P. Boulez: Sur Incises Ensemble Intercontemporain. (Deutshe Grammophon, 463 475-2).

Elgar, E The Dream Of Gerontius: Boult/LPO (EMI, HMVD 5 72758 2).

Harisson, J. Articles indéfinis (empreintes DIGITALes, IMED 9627).

Harisson, J. Environs (empreintes DIGITALes, IMED 0788 DVD-A).

Mackay, R. Soundworks (unpublished at present).

Messiaen, O. Olivier Messiaen: Des canyons aux étoiles: Leeuw/ASKO Ensemble (Disques Montaigne, MO782 138).

Smalley, D. Impacts intérieurs (empreintes DIGITALes, IMED 0409).

Various artists. Cultures Électroniques: 24éme Concours International de Musique Electroacoustique (Unesco, LCD 278063/64).

Various artists. Legacies: Works from BEAST vol. 2 (Sargasso CD, SCD 28046).

Various artists. Schoenberg, Berg, Webern; Orchestral Works: Karajan/Berlin Philharmonic (Deutsche Gramophon, 419 781-2).

Various artists. Sonic art from... (MPS, MPSCD013).

Wishart, T. Red Bird/Anticredos (EMF, CD022).

Various artists. Stravinsky Bartok - Violin Concertos: Salonen/Mullova/Los Angeles Philharmonic New Music Group (Philips, 456 542-2).

 

 

             7.Appendix - Software documentation

Appendix D contains verbal and numerical descriptions of the procedures carried out by the software written for: Enough~?, Seasons and Polarities. This is with a view to being able to reconstruct the software at some point in the future when current operating systems and programming languages are defunct.

Enough~? Max patch
Software documentation

Synopsis:

Enough~? is a piece of music for clarinet and computer. It is performed by two people, one playing the clarinet from the score and initialising the processing changes as indicated in the notated part, with the second performer diffusing the sound from the computer and acting as a backup to ensure that events have been correctly triggered. This document provides details of the computer software required to perform the piece (all currently encapsulated in the file enough.app).

Conventions:
The audio signal is a stereo L R pair.
Times are in ms.
Where a list of control data is shown [0, 0.5 100 0.8 300] shows an initial level of 0 changing as a continuous parameter to 0.5 in 100 ms. then to 0.8 in 300 ms.
Volume runs from 0 to 1, 0 being nothing and 1 representing no attenuation i.e. -0dB.


System requirements for original patch:

Max/MSP 4.3 or better (for patcher)
Mac OSX.3.9 867 MHz G4 640 MB RAM or better.
MIDI interface including sustain pedal (controller number 64)
Microphone in, ideally stereo.
Stereo audio out.

Screenshot of patcher


Input and control:

There are 3 types of input: mic in, pedal in and computer in.

A microphone is required to capture the sound of the clarinettist for processing, this provides audio material but is also used to control processing parameters see below.

A MIDI sustain pedal is used by the clarinettist to cycle through the processing events by pressing it when indicated by * in the score.

The diffuser can also monitor and override the clarinettist's pedal activity by selecting the relevant * number with the computer, as shown in the purple box in the patch in the case of mis-triggering or other errors.

There is also the option to have the unprocessed clarinet sound play though for the purposes of sound checking or reinforcement.


Event protocol and processing:

Processing events are triggered by the clarinettist pressing the MIDI pedal at the points marked * and event number in the score, the following is a list of events and their physical attributes. Outputs C1 - C10 are virtual stereo pairs used for panning, see below.

Pedal event *0

Initial ON state, there is no processing happening but DSP and play though are active. By selecting *0 the diffuser can stop all processing (for rehearsal purposes).

Pedal event *1

Record incoming audio to buffer labelled e1.

Pedal event *2

Playback contents of e1 buffer. Send to C1 and C2 outputs.

Record incoming audio, summed with e1 buffer to buffers labelled e 2 and e10. Send to C1 and C2 outputs

Pedal event *3

Record incoming audio to buffer labelled e3 for 2 seconds. After another 3 seconds playback buffer e3 as a continuous loop and send this output to a stereo comb filter (stopping loop at *5). Two comb filters are run simultaneously to create a stereo effect.

Comb filter 1 - sent to C1 output

Factor Parameters
Delay ms 0, 0.3 1000 0.2 10 0.2 1 0.6 150 1 1000 3 1000 0.5 10 1 1000 0.2 2000 8 1000 2 1000 15 1000 2000 1000 800 2000 240 1000 0.3 1000 4 203 4 928 19 420 1 40 0.51 192 0.72 182 0.875 1938 0.3 1000 0.2 10 0.6 150 1 100 3 4 0.5 10 1 30 0.2 200 8 200 2 350 15 14 20 140 240 1000 0 1000 1 30 5 30 1 30 0 10 30 400 (where 0 is the initial value and where each float - integer pair represents a change to a float value in the given integer ms. target time
Gain coefficient 100
Feedforward coefficient 2.81
Feedback coefficient 0.99


Comb filter 2 - sent to C2 output

Factor Parameters
Delay ms 15
Gain coefficient 100
Feedforward coefficient 2.81
Feedback coefficient 0.99


Pedal event *4

Record incoming audio to buffer labelled e4.

Playback buffer e3 as a continuous loop at 0.0625x the speed, fading in by [0, 0.5 5000 0.9 8000].
Playback buffer e3 as a continuous loop at 8x the speed, fading in by [0, 0.3 5000 0.7 12000]
Playback buffer e3 as a continuous loop at 16x the speed, fading in by [0, 0.2, 5000 0.7 18000].
These three buffer outputs are summed and sent to C1 & C2.

Incoming sound is delayed (by between 499 and 501 ms. oscillating at 4 Hz.) starting at 0 and reaching a volume level of 0.5 in 5000 ms. Send to C7 & C8.

Incoming sound is delayed (by between 239 and 241 ms. oscillating at 5 Hz.) starting at 0 and reaching a volume level of 0.5 in 5000 ms. Send to C9 & C10.

Pedal event *5

Stop the e3 loop.

Playback buffer e4 as a continuous loop. Volume starting at 0, then rising to 1 in 5000 ms. Send to C3 & C4.

Record incoming audio to buffer labelled e5.

After 257 ms. start a metronome running at 280 (crotchet) bpm subdivided in semi quavers with numerical outputs 1 - 16. These are used as midi notes and then converted into corresponding audio frequencies to create a continuous control line to cycle though a look-up table of 8192 samples based on loop e5. Volume [0, 0.04 20000]. Send to C5 & C6.

Pedal event *6

Stop e4 loop.

The *4 incoming sound is delayed by between 239 and 241 ms oscillating at 5 Hz fades [0.5, 0.25 1000 0 2000] and then stops.

The *4 e3 continuous loop at 16x speed needs to fade out and finish in 6 seconds

The *4 e3 continuous loop at 8x speed needs to fade out and finish in 12 seconds

The *5e5 look-up table output amplitude changes [0, 0 2000 0.3 20000].

Pedal event *7

The *4 e3 continuous loop at 0.0625 speed needs to fade out and finish in 5 seconds.

The *5e5 look-up table stops.

Pedal event *8

The *4 incoming sound delayed by between 499 and 501 ms oscillating at 4 Hz stops

Incoming sound delayed by between 399 and 401 ms oscillating at 4 Hz starting at 0 and reaching a level of 1 in 500 ms. Sent to C3 & C4.

Pedal event *9

The *8 sound goes to volume 0 in 2000 ms and stops.

Pedal event *10

Playback buffer e2 as a continuous loop at volume 0.3. Send to C1 & C2.

Pedal event *11

The e2 buffer stops.

Incoming sound is delayed by 1 ms with a feedback loop attenuated at 0.8. This is then comb filtered with the following parameters: delay 15 ms, gain 7.04, feedforward coefficient 2.81, feedback coefficient 0.85. Volume [0, 0.015 3000]. All attenuated by 0.02. Send to C3 & C4.

Record output of *11 1 ms. loop to buffer labelled e11 for 1500 ms. Then playback looped at the following speeds and volumes:


Playback Speed Volume changes
0.125 0, 0.6 5000 0.7 8000 0.4 2000 0 500 0.6 3000 0.7 5000 0.73 4000 0.827 20048 0.483 5285 0.6 10390 0.8 30000
0.25 0, 0.8 12000 0.6 5000 0.7 3000 0.63 4000 0.37 8033 0.39 23000 0.283 3058 0.496 13048 0.853 3045 0.483 5839 0.73 5493 0.683 9347 0.683 3947 0 302 0.384 2784 0.482 6734 0.583 6839 0.34895 8949 0.483 4893 0.392 5839 0.4829 5783 0.8 30000
0.5 0, 0.8 5000 0.73 5493 0.683 9347 0.683 3947 0 302 0.384 2784 0.482 6734 0.583 6839 0.34895 8949 0.483 4893 0.392 5839 0.4829 5783 0.8 5000 0.398 3829 0.3782 3928 0.3729 5839 0.384 6937 0.6985 8875 0.6843 9457 0.2784 8493 0.784 4937 0.689 4873 0.43978 4937 0.344 3948 0.4839 4849
1 0, 0.8 5000
2 0, 0.8 5000 0.398 3829 0.3782 3928 0.3729 5839 0.384 6937 0.6985 8875 0.6843 9457 0.2784 8493 0.784 4937 0.689 4873 0.43978 4937 0.344 3948 0.4839 4849
3 0, 0.8 5000 0.2 16000 0.7 15000 0.5 20000 0.8 20000
4 0, 0.8 5000 0.893 8492 0.32 2393 0.383 3839 0.684 8937 0.684 4839 0.58094 4948 0.4972 4897 0.493 4789 0.9839 8349 0.3892 3833 0.392 4723 0.292 4733
8 0, 0.2 5000 0.5 20000 0.3 40000 0.2 10000 0.3 20000


These delays are summed and attenuated as follows [0, 0 2000 0.2 10000 0.2 14000 0.25 16500 0.2 5000 0.15 10000 0.1 10000 0.3 15000 0.2 15000 0.8 15000]. Send to C1 and C2.

Pedal event *12

*11 Comb filter feed stops.

Pedal event *13

Current audio used to re-record e 11 buffer, and restart its loops.

Pedal event *14

Incoming sound is delayed by 1 ms with a feedback loop attenuated at 0.8. This is then comb filtered with the parameters as *11. Volumes [0, 0.01 4000 0.015 2000 0.013 2000]. All attenuated by 0.02. Send to C3 & C4.

Pedal event *15

*14 Comb filter feed stops.

Pedal event *16

Incoming is signal delayed: L channel by 3300 ms. R by 3030 both including feedback loop attenuated to 0.75. Output of L and R delay lines with volumes [0, 1 5000 1 45000 0 9000 1 6000] are sent to C5 & C6.

Incoming audio is analysed to give a numberical output of pitch Hz and attack time ms. The incoming frequency is multiplied by 2 and used as the gain coefficient for a comb filter with 300 ms. delay time, 14.81 feedforward coefficient, 0.9 feedback coefficient. This is used to filter incoming audio. This is then attenuated by 0.002 The incoming audio attack time is multiplied by 70 the results of which are used to generate a sine wave at that frequency in Hz attenuated by 0.5. The output of this is multiplied the output of the frequency controlled comb filter. This has volumes [0, 0.2 5000 1 15000] and is sent to C3

The audio feeding C4 functions as follows. The attack time analysis is multiplied by 400. This is then used to control a delay of the incoming signal which then runs to a comb filter: 300 ms. delay time, 9.04 gain coefficient, 14.81 feedforward coefficient, 0.9 feedback coefficient. This is used to filter incoming audio which is then attenuated by 0.002 This has volumes [0, 0.2 5000 1 15000] and is sent to C4.

C3 and C4 analysis and processing is done in stereo thoughout (ie duplicated for left and right channels), until the frequency controlled filter outputs are summed to C3 and the attack delayed ones are summed and sent to C4.

Pedal event *17

The *16 3300 and 3030 delay lines are attenuated [1, 0 5000] and then stop.

The *16 C3 & C4 outputs are attenuated [1, 0 8000] and then stop.

Play though the e11 buffer triggering sequentially at intervals of 277 ms at the following speeds 0.5x, 0.75x, 1x, 1.5x, 2x, 1.5x, 1x, 0.75x, 0.5x in a loop. Volumes [0.3, 0.5 3000 0.4 8000 0.8 5000]. Send to C7 & C8

Pedal event *18

The *17 C7 & C8 outputs are attenuated [0.8, 0 5000] and then stop.

White noise is run through a bandpass filter with a moveable centre frequency running from 0 to 8000 Hz. in 58000 ms. and a bandwidth in Hz. equal to the numberical value of the centre frequency. This fades in [0, 0.06 15000] and is sent to C3 & C4.

Incoming audio is comb filtered using the following parameters: delay 100 ms. feedforward coefficient 2.81 & feedback 0.99. This fades in [0, 0.07 30000, 0.35 6000] also sent to C3 and C4

Pedal event *19

The *11 loops diminish in volume [0.8, 0.5 1000 0.2 2000 0 40000] and then stop.

The *18 filtered noise diminishes in volume [0.06, 0 8000] and then stops.

The *18 comb filtered audio stops.

Incoming audio is analysed and the fundamental frequency output is used to generate sine waves at 10, 20, 40 & 50 times the frequency, at volume levels 0.3, 0..3, 0.3 & 0.2 respectively. These are then summed and attenuated by the following: [0, 0 5000 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 3900 0.5 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 6900 0.3 100 0.3 900 0 100 0 4900 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 6900 0.5 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 900 0.3 100 0.3 900 0 100 0 900]. A 3 way selection process is used to control the output of this signal. The selection changes every 5000 ms. The first selection gives no output. The second selection delays the synth output by 100 ms. with a feed back attenuation of 0.9. The third choice is as number two but with feedback attenuation of 0.5. This is summed and sent to C9 & C10

Pedal event *20

Play back the e3 buffer looped at 0.125x speed fading in [0.2, 1.5 8000] send to C1 and C2.

Incoming audio is vocoded with a pulse train signal of a noise threshold of 1, period of 100, pulse width 1, amplitude 10 & filter Q 120. This is sent to C7 & C8.

Pedal event *21

The *20 vocoding stops.

The *19 synth sound stops.

Incoming audio is analysed the fundamental frequency output is multiplied by 0.02 and used to control the delay time ms. of comb filter: feedforward 14.81 and feedback 0.99. The audio feed to the filter is split, half running ‘clean’ and half through a 100 ms. delay. The output of the comb filter sends to C1 & C2 but also via an attenuation of 0.5 and a feedback loop back into the 100 ms. delay.

Pedal event *22

The * 21 comb filtering stops.

Pedal event *23

The *20 e3 buffer fades [1, 0 1000] and stops.

Pedal event *24

Incoming audio is streamed to a buffer and granulated with a position jitter of 1327 ms. The granulated output played back at 0.9x, 1x, and 1.2x speed. This fades in [0, 1 1000]. Send to C1 & C2.

Pedal event *25

The *24 granulation stops fades [1, 0 2000] and then stops.

Incoming audio is written to buffer e29 lasting 3200 ms. It is immediately played back on a loop the first time unaltered, the second repetition at 0.5 volume and the third at 0.3, it then stops. Separate to this incoming audio is vocoded with a pulse train signal of a noise threshold of 1, period of 100, pulse width 1, amplitude 10 & filter Q 120 fading in [0, 1 1000]. All summed to C1 & C2.

Pedal event *26

The *25 vocoding fades [1, 1 10000 0 7000] and then stops.

Incoming audio is delayed by 3000 ms. with a feedback loop attenuated at 0.8. The output then is then further attenuated [0, 0 18000 1 8000 1 200 0.4 300 0.4 500 1 10 1 500 0.2 10 0.2 4000 0.8 30 0.8 5000 0.4 5000 0.2 3000]. Sent to C1 and C2 with fade in [0, 1.3 8000].

Incoming audio is analysed and the fundamental frequency output is used to generate sine waves at 10, 20, 40 & 50 times the frequency at volume levels 0.3, 0..3, 0.3 & 0.2 respectively. These are then summed and attenuated by the following: [0, 0 500 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 3900 0.5 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 6900 0.7 100 0.7 900 0 100 0 400 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 900 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0.4 100 0.3 900 0 100 0 900 1 5000 0 3000]. Sent to C3 and C4 with fade in [0, 1.3 8000].

Incoming audio is streamed to a buffer and granulated with a position jitter of 1327 ms. and the granulated output played back at 0.9x, 1x, and 1.2x speed. Turning on and off randomly at 2000 ms. intervals. Sent to C5 and C6 with fade in [0, 1.3 8000].

White noise is run through a bandpass filter with a moveable centre frequency from 0 to 320 Hz. in 10000 ms. and a bandwidth in Hz. equal to the numberical value of the centre frequency. Sent to C7 and C8 with fade in [0, 0.7 8000].

Two signals are generated, one sine wave at 1.3 kHz. amplitude modulated by a 219 Hz. signal consisting of random values between -1 and 1. The other signal is a sine wave at 80 Hz. multiplied by a 9 Hz. signal also consisting of random values between -1 and 1. These signals are summed and attenuated by [0, 0 5000 1.5 9000]. Sent to C9 and C10 with fade in [0, 0.7 8000].

Pedal event *27

The * 26 C1 and C2 delay, C3 and C4 synthesis and C5 and C6 granulation stop.
The C7 and C8 filtered noise fades [0.5, 0 8000] and stops.
The C9 and C10 *26 events fade [1, 0 10000] and stop.

Three timbres are generated as in *26 C9 and C10.

Frequency Hz. Amplitude modulating signal consisting
of random values between -1 and 1 Hz.
Volume
1300, 1300 10000 590 8000 1300 10000 219 0.07
590 219, 219 10000 0 90000 219 10 219 5000 500 6000 219 3000 219 6000 0.06
80 9, 5 30000 9 30000 0.07


The outputs of these signals are then multiplied together and fade in 0.2, 0.8 500 sent to C3 and C4.

Pedal event *28

Incoming audio is recorded to buffer e 28.

Incoming audio is delayed by 100 ms with feedback attenuated by 0.8, fading in and out [0, 0 1500 1 1500 0 3000] and sent to C1 & C2.

Pedal event *29

The *27 C3 and C4 pitches fade 0.8 0 10000 and stop.

Incoming audio delayed by 700 ms with feedback attenuated by 0.3, fading in and out [0, 0.3 7000 0.1 500 0 1000 0 6000 0.2 7000 0.1 6000 0 7000].

A 295 Hz. sine wave subject to an amplitude modulating signal consisting of random values between -1 and 1 Hz. at frequencies [1000, 1 400000] with the following amplitude [0, 0 3000 0.1 18000 0.05 9000] is sent to C5 and C6.

Incoming audio is analysed and the fundamental frequency output is used to generate sine waves at 10, 20, 40 & 80 times the frequency at volume levels 0.3, 0..3, 0.3 & 0.2 respectively. These are then summed and attenuated by the following: [0, 0 500 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 3900 0.5 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 6900 0.7 100 0.7 900 0 100 0 400 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 900 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0.4 100 0.3 900 0 100 0 900 1 5000 0 3000. Sent to C7 and C8 with fade in 0, 0 2000 1 5000].

Pedal event *30

Incoming audio is streamed to a buffer and granulated with a position jitter of 1327 ms. The granulated output played back at 0.9x, 1x, and 1.2x speed. This is attenuated [0, 0 3000 1 200 0 3000 0 1000 1 200 1 1000 0 400 0 100 1 100 1 3000] and sent to C1 and C2.

Record incoming audio to buffer labelled e30 for 1500 ms. Then play back e 30 looped at the following speeds and volumes:

Playback Speed Volume changes
0.125 0, 0.6 5000 0.7 8000 0.4 2000 0 500 0.6 3000 0.7 5000 0.73 4000 0.827 20048 0.483 5285 0.6 10390 0.8 30000
0.25 0, 0.8 12000 0.6 5000 0.7 3000 0.63 4000 0.37 8033 0.39 23000 0.283 3058 0.496 13048 0.853 3045 0.483 5839 0.73 5493 0.683 9347 0.683 3947 0 302 0.384 2784 0.482 6734 0.583 6839 0.34895 8949 0.483 4893 0.392 5839 0.4829 5783 0.8 30000
0.5 0, 0.8 5000 0.73 5493 0.683 9347 0.683 3947 0 302 0.384 2784 0.482 6734 0.583 6839 0.34895 8949 0.483 4893 0.392 5839 0.4829 5783 0.8 5000 0.398 3829 0.3782 3928 0.3729 5839 0.384 6937 0.6985 8875 0.6843 9457 0.2784 8493 0.784 4937 0.689 4873 0.43978 4937 0.344 3948 0.4839 4849
1 0, 0.8 5000
2 0, 0.8 5000 0.398 3829 0.3782 3928 0.3729 5839 0.384 6937 0.6985 8875 0.6843 9457 0.2784 8493 0.784 4937 0.689 4873 0.43978 4937 0.344 3948 0.4839 4849
3 0, 0.8 5000 0.2 16000 0.7 15000 0.5 20000 0.8 20000
4 0, 0.8 5000 0.893 8492 0.32 2393 0.383 3839 0.684 8937 0.684 4839 0.58094 4948 0.4972 4897 0.493 4789 0.9839 8349 0.3892 3833 0.392 4723 0.292 4733
8 0, 0.2 5000 0.5 20000 0.3 40000 0.2 10000 0.3 20000


These delays are summed and attenuated as follows:
[0, 0 2000 0.3 20000]. Sent to C1 and C2

Pedal event *31

The *30 granulation stops.

Record incoming audio to buffer e31. After 2000 ms. play back e31 looped through a comb filter of parameters: [1000, 1 30 5 30 1 30 0 10 30 400] ms. delay ,7.04 gain, 2.81 feedforward 0.99 feedback. Fading in [0, 0.03 5000]. Send to C1 and C2.

Pedal event *32

The *29 C7 and C8 synthesis stops.

The *30 comb filtering fades [0.03, 0 8000] and stops.

The *30 C1 and C2 events stop.

Play though the e28 buffer triggering sequentially at intervals of 277 ms at the following speeds 0.5x, 0.75x, 1x, 1.5x, 2x, 1.5x, 1x, 0.75x, 0.5x in a loop. Volumes of [0, 0.2 2000 0.3 3000 0.8 8000]. All attenuated bu 0.5 and sent to C3 & C4

Incoming audio is analysed and the fundamental frequency output is used to generate sine waves at 10, 20, 40 & 80 times the frequency at volume levels 0.3, 0..3, 0.3 & 0.2 respectively. These are then summed and attenuated by the following: [0, 0 500 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 3900 0.5 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 6900 0.7 100 0.7 900 0 100 0 400 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0 900 0.8 100 0.5 900 0 100 0 900 1 100 1 900 0 100 0 4900 0.8 100 0.8 900 0 100 0.4 100 0.3 900 0 100 0 900 1 5000 0 3000]. The output of this is then split, half is sent out clean and half to a 100 ms. delay line with a 0.8 feedback loop which fades in [0, 0 18000 1 8000 1 200 0.4 300 0.4 500 1 10 1 500 0.2 10 0.2 4000 0.8 30 0.8 5000 0.4 5000 0.2 3000]. This is all then summed and fades in 0. 1 8000 sent to C7 and C8.

Incoming sound delayed by between 499 and 501 ms oscillating at 4 Hz fading in [0, 0 5000 0.3 9000]. Sent to C7 & C8.

Incoming sound delayed by between 239 and 241 ms oscillating at 5 Hz fading in [0, 0 9000 0.3 5000]. Sent to C7 & C8.

After 257 ms. start a metronome running at 280 (crotchet) bpm subdivided in semi quavers with numerical outputs 1 - 16. These are used as midi notes converted into corresponding audio frequencies to create a continuous control line to cycle though a look-up table of 8192 samples based on loop e5. Volume starting at 0, then rising to 0.04 in 20000 ms. Sent to C1 & C2.

Pedal event * 33

The *32 C7 and C8 synth delay fades [1, 0 3000] and stops.

The *32 4 kHz. delay fades [0.3, 0 5000] and stops.

The *32 5 kHz. delay fades [0.3, 0.2 1000 0 2000] and stops.

The *32 e5 buffer event stops.

Pedal event *34

The *29 C5 and C6 wave fades [0.1, 0 5000] and stops. After 12000 ms. the *32 e28 buffer fades [0.8, 0.5 3000 0 10000] and stops.

Pedal event *35

Finish all processing.


Panning:


Panning is implemented on the model of panning stereo pairs: C1 & C2, C3 & C4, C5 & C6, C7 & C8, C9 & C10 respectively. These are then all summed to a stereo output for diffusion. Panning is automated via the * events. Automation is shown in pairs a, b c b c b c etc. where a is the initial value, b is the next value and c is the time in ms. it takes to get there. 0 = hard right, 127 = hard left. For example C1 and C2 at *2 say 66, 71.12 295.683472, therefore the sound starts roughly central before moving swiftly moving part way to the left.

C1 & C2 panning data:


 

Event no. Control Data
*2 63, 80.818184 427.631592 95.25 131.578918 118.340912 197.368469 37.522728 65.789429 0. 164.473694 92.36364 32.894775 92.36364 230.263123 86.590912 460.526367 112.568184 32.894775 63.5 65.789429 72.159096 164.473633 95.25 230.263062 51.954548 296.052734 112.568184 164.473633 43.295456 427.631592 60.61364 0. 98.136368 394.737061 86.590912 98.684082 25.977274 65.789307 72.159096 592.105713 106.795456 657.894531 46.18182 65.789551 60.61364 756.578613 37.522728 361.842285 80.818184 230.263184 57.727276 263.157715 103.909096 526.315918 31.75 394.736816 80.818184 164.473633 23.09091 361.841797 72.159096 197.368164 20.204546 164.473633 72.159096 526.317383 34.636364 756.578125 69.272728 296.052734 23.09091 427.631836 92.36364 197.368164 69.272728 361.841797 95.25 98.68457 37.522728 98.68457 25.977274 592.104492 66.386368 98.68457 37.522728 197.368164 106.795456 657.894531 51.954548 625. 86.590912 98.68457 49.068184 65.789062 89.477272 394.737305 43.295456 230.263672 51.954548 0. 25.977274 592.104492 106.795456 65.789062 86.590912 164.473633 20.204546 197.369141 112.568184 361.842773 28.863638 98.682617 86.590912 1019.737305 63.5 789.474609 103.909096 657.894531 83.704552 164.472656 34.636364 131.58 80.818184 98.683594 72.159096 822.369141 112.568184 230.261719 101.022728 197.371094 72.159096 98.681641 37.522728 263.160156 54.840912 789.470703 86.590912 361.84375 20.204546 65.789062 92.36364 230.263672 69.272728 197.367188 60.61364 1019.736328 57.727276 328.949219 75.045456 953.947266 57.727276 1019.736328 103.909096 1118.42 115.454552 789.474609 89.477272 65.789062 72.159096 65.791016 54.840912 888.158203 34.636364 625. 60.61364 0. 66.386368 1414.47265
*9 111, 127. 269.78418 25.4 205.03598 55.88 215.827362 40.64 118.705017 66.04 258.992798 40.64 258.992798 81.28 356.11499 71.12 183.453491 66.04 226.61853 76.2 377.697998 55.88 215.827148 66.04 291.367188
*16 62, 85.07177 32.858707 88.717697 55.859806 109.985641 16.429352 94.794258 16.429359 121.531097 19.715225 81.425835 32.858704 96.617218 46.002197 60.157894 62.431549 21.875597 108.433746 69.272728 6.571716 51.650715 49.288086 96.009567 52.573914 69.272728 52.573944 76.56459 49.288086 55.88 89.33313 68.66507 25.672302 62.588516 52.573975 69.880379 49.288025 35.244019 98.576172 62.588516 13.143494 78.995209 42.716309 111.2 19.71521 57.727272 39.43042 1.822966 42.716309 66.234444 46.002197 69.880379 32.858765 105.124397 52.573975 51.04306 39.43042 68.66507 69.003296 29.167463 59.14563 65.019135 95.290283 50.435406 69.003296 83.248802 23.001099 80.818176 29.572754 99.047844 52.573975 74.741623 69.003296 77.172249 46.002197 46.789471 98.576172 66.842102 78.86084 60.765549 65.717407 66.04 92.42981 72.311005 62.006104 66.234444 101.862061 75.349281 78.86084 72.311005 36.144531 76.2 98.824463 66.842102 35.89624 67.44976 39.430664 61.373203 49.287842 63.803825 39.430664 55.88 51.781738 59.550236 82.938965 64.411484 39.43042 61.373203 72.289062 66.04 96.70874
*20 63, 80.818184 14.254386 95.25 4.385964 118.340912 6.578949 37.522728 2.192982 0. 5.482456 92.36364 1.096493 92.36364 7.675438 86.590912 15.350876 112.568184 1.096493 63.5 2.192982 72.159096 5.482456 95.25 7.675438 51.954548 9.868423 112.568184 5.482452 60.61364 14.254387 43.295456 0. 98.136368 13.157898 86.590912 3.289474 25.977274 2.192978 72.159096 19.736847 106.795456 21.929825 46.18182 2.192978 60.61364 25.219299 37.522728 12.061401 80.818184 7.675446 57.727276 8.771927 103.909096 17.543854 31.75 13.157898 80.818184 5.482452 23.09091 12.061401 72.159096 6.578949 20.204546 5.482452 72.159096 17.543884 34.636364 25.219269 69.272728 9.868439 23.09091 14.254395 92.36364 6.578949 69.272728 12.061401 95.25 3.289459 37.522728 3.28949 25.977274 19.736816 66.386368 3.28949 37.522728 6.578949 106.795456 21.92981 51.954548 20.833344 86.590912 3.28949 49.068184 2.192963 89.477272 13.157898 51.954548 7.675446 43.295456 0. 25.977274 19.736847 106.795456 2.192963 86.590912 5.482452 20.204546 6.578949 112.568184 12.061432 28.863638 3.289429 86.590912 33.991272 63.5 26.315796 103.909096 21.92981 83.704552 5.482422 34.636364 4.385986 80.818184 3.28949 72.159096 27.412292 112.568184 7.675415 101.022728 6.578979 72.159096 3.289429 37.522728 8.771973 54.840912 26.315735 86.590912 12.061462 20.204546 2.192932 92.36364 7.675476 69.272728 6.578918 60.61364 33.991211 57.727276 10.964966 75.045456 31.798218 57.727276 33.991211 103.909096 37.280701 115.454552 26.315796 89.477272 2.192993 72.159096 2.192993 54.840912 29.605286 60.61364 20.833313 34.636364 0. 66.386368 47.149109
*24 111, 127. 179.856125 47.977779 45.495972 110.066666 169.014084 42.333336 169.014069 84.666672 112.676086 59.266666 42.253479 127. 180.970764 79.022224 58.465881 57.583851 273.35498 121.35556 78.75769 37.863354 72.430298 127. 143.134277 90.714287 116.044922 37.074535 194.384399 118.322983 107.991333 16.933334 56.15564 123.844727 51.835693 77.304352 21.598389 45.155556 166.002441 55.88 62.721924 107.244446 21.784912 34.708076 51.866699 67.733337 32.640381 99.391304 96.949219 107.244446 29.811523 28.222223 14.084473 112.801247 20.898682 40.64 127.647461 76.2 48.636963 113.59 147.689453 29.975157 86.393311 104.422226 19.438232 33.130436 45.356445 35.496895 194.384521 100.968948 21.598145 41.807453 129.5896 11.288889 3.4375 127. 84.507324 31.552795 41.64502 28.222223 183.707031 127. 225.351807 50.8 154.929688 50.8 112.67627 73.377777 28.168945 36.285713 51.105957 76.2 75.654785 40.64 72.347656 35.496895 111.176758 45.155556 210.841309 111.223602 69.936035 73.377777 14.571289 62.08889 197.183105 112.801247 25.826172 41.018635 172.786621 42.596275 194.384277 62.08889 15.453613 36.285713 27.743164 72.571426 129.589355 81.28 17.558105 104.913048 25.638672 59.950314 410.366699 104.422226 36.991211 42.596275 135.79541 71.12 2.719727 87.559006 40.477051 98.602486 345.572266 42.596275 21.598145 62.08889 31.302246 22.875776 76.689453 44.173912 237.580566 66.04 2.175293 26.031055 343.396973 81.844444 16.214355 108.857147 264.563477 44.962734 86.392578 44.962734 107.991699 74.937889 21.598145 47.329193 259.179688 76.2 159.65625 55.88 719.423828 66.04 971.224609
*29 111, 118.936516 49.056602 54.428574 7.547169 30.238096 30.188679 110.873024 22.64151 50.8 9.27108 111.76 53.956841 34.269844 8.4702 8.063493 56.60376 64.507942 15.094345 127. 16.953995 40.64 43.165466 106.841278 11.578644 127. 53.169556 62.492065 7.207794 127. 68.331787 25.4 21.582733 104.825401 19.51944 106.68 88.394226 45.72 21.582764 24.190477 67.381531 81.28 40.532104 66.523811 87.769775 40.64 9.352539 106.68 86.330933 45.72 64.74823 26.20635 20.7 42.333336 18.86792 70.555557 7.54718 82.650795 33.962219 66.04 26.835938 68.539688 41.088623 78.619049 49.056641 45.72 50.142578 36.285717 81.932861 72.571434 11.320679 84.666672 26.415161 64.507942 33.96228 82.650795 7.547119 84.666672 37.73584 90.714294 26.415161 82.650795 3.77356 72.571434 7.547119 40.64 22.343018 36.285717 121.053223 70.555557 75.47168 80.634926 49.056641 80.634926 83.018921 71.12 70.680176 42.333336 118. 46.365082 60.377319 66.04 48.242188 50.396828 46.097412 82.650795 41.509521 106.68 74.263672 98.777786 103.094727 76.2 112.732666 55.88 215.827148 66.04 291.367188


C3 & C4 panning data:

Event no. Control Data
*4 60,72.215691 13.961606 54.784317 19.197208 69.725494 19.197208 54.784317 10.471203 67.235298 20.942406 52.294121 8.726006 74.705887 15.70681 42.333336 13.961601 87.156868 27.923218 29.882355 19.197205 89.647064 12.2164 42.333336 6.980804 122.019615 20.942413 37.352943 6.980804 99.607849 15.706802 52.294121 12.2164 92.13726 12.216415 42.333336 3.490387 89.647064 12.2164 32.372551 6.980804 102.098045 17.452026 37.352943 12.2164 19.92157 15.706818 114.549026 6.980804 27.392159 20.942383 74.705887 5.235626 34.862747 22.687592 112.05883 12.2164 12.450981 15.706818 127. 27.923218 77.196083 26.178009 24.901962 19.197205 94.627457 24.4328 29.882355 15.706818 72.215691 17.452026 44.823532 17.451965 92.13726 13.961609 42.333336 19.197205 104.588242 27.923218 52.294121 24.4328 87.156868 36.649231 62.254906 10.471191 82.176476 41.884827 64.745102 10.471191 77.196083 38.394409 69.725494 10.471252 57.274513 55.846375 74.705887 20.942444 54.784317 31.413635 67.235298 20.942383 54.784317 19.197205 99.607849 55.846436
*14 63, 67.641304 293.072845 60.739132 191.829468 69.021744 282.415619 57.978264 234.458313 70.402176 351.687378 56.597828 266.42981 70.402176 271.758423 45.554348 186.5 67.641304 319.71582 55.217392 255.772705 64.88044 346.358643
*19 & *23 61, 92.475731 188.13559 73.980583 20.338989 41.922329 0. 93.70874 25.423721 51.786407 40.677963 97.407768 116.949158 88.776703 5.084747 23.427185 55.93219 101.106796 5.084747 41.922329 15.254242 55.485439 20.338989 85.077667 5.084747 75.213593 20.338959 20.961164 5.084778 69.048546 35.593201 53.019417 96.610168 104.805824 35.593201 1.23301 25.423767 93.70874 5.084717 91.242722 25.423767 19.728155 66.101685 96.174759 40.677979 90.009712 96.610168 18.495146 40.677917 32.058254 50.847534 94.94175 15.25415 16.029127 106.779663 81.378639 5.084717 12.33 76.27124 108.504852 106.779663 12.33 5.084717 71.514565 10.169556 69.048546 86.440674 27.126213 25.423706 16.029127 132.203369 104.805824 5.084717 35.757282 35.593262 87.543694 5.084717 12.33 5.084717 94.94175 25.423828 70.281555 66.101685 6.165049 76.271118 86.310684 5.084717 70.281555 5.084839 96.174759 30.508423 30.825243 10.169556 45.621361 35.59314 67.815536 71.186523 40.68932 50.847412 45.621361 76.271118 104.805824 25.423828 2.466019 30.508545 67.815536 25.423584 40.68932 20.339111 6.165049 55.932129 27.126213 86.440674 64.116508 40.677979 101.106796 5.084717 62.883495 55.932129 13.563107 61.01709 41.922329 45.762695 61.650486 177.966064 0. 55.932129 66.04 198.305176
*26 61, 92.475731 1254.237305 41.922329 135.593262 73.980583 0. 93.70874 169.491455 51.786407 271.186401 97.407768 779.661011 88.776703 33.898438 23.427185 372.881104 101.106796 33.898438 41.922329 101.694824 55.485439 135.593262 85.077667 33.898438 75.213593 135.593018 20.961164 33.898438 69.048546 237.288086 53.019417 644.067871 104.805824 237.288086 1.23301 169.491699 93.70874 33.897949 91.242722 169.491699 19.728155 440.678223 96.174759 271.186523 90.009712 644.067871 18.495146 271.186035 32.058254 338.983398 94.94175 101.694336 16.029127 711.864258 81.378639 33.898438 12.33 508.475098 108.504852 711.864258 12.33 33.898438 71.514565 67.796875 69.048546 576.270508 27.126213 169.491211 16.029127 881.356445 104.805824 33.897461 35.757282 237.289062 87.543694 33.898438 12.33 33.897461 94.94175 169.492188 70.281555 440.677734 6.165049 508.474609 86.310684 33.897461 70.281555 33.9 96.174759 203.389648 30.825243 67.796875 45.621361 237.287109 67.815536 474.577148 40.68932 338.983398 45.621361 508.473633 104.805824 169.492188 2.466019 203.390625 67.815536 169.490234 40.68932 135.59375 6.165049 372.880859 27.126213 576.271484 64.116508 271.186523 101.106796 33.898438 62.883495 372.880859 13.563107 406.779297 41.922329 305.085938 61.650486 1186.439453 0. 372.880859 66.04 1322.035156


C5 & C6 panning data:

Event no. Control Data
*4, *11 & *16 60, 71.12 1258.99292 52.716984 293.294678 65.896225 571.895508 45.72 483.730713 46.726418 619.210693 66.04 549.854248 51.518867 144.589844 68.292458 326.797607 40.64 427.893066 60.96 449.640137 15.24 539.568359 71.12 359.712402 10.16 539.568359 71.886795 12.048828 23.962265 408.49707 91.44 29.09375 20.367926 256.853516 92.254715 122.549316 35.56 70.237793 9.584906 419.958008 106.68 119.610352 5.990566 288.88623 103.037735 122.549805 20.32 307.988281 76.2 359.712891 106.63208 149.291992 7.188679 204.248047 76.679245 326.797852 32.349056 367.646484 73.084908 326.797852 46.726418 531.045898 100.64151 816.993164 65.896225 81.7 33.547169 122.548828 101.839622 0. 9.584906 163.398438 115.018867 163.4 21.566038 285.948242 103.037735 204.248047 15.575472 204.248047 80.273582 204.248047 35.943398 326.796875 83.867928 204.25 45.528301 326.796875 93.452835 204.248047 19.169811 326.797852 118.613213 367.646484 22.764151 449.347656 83.867928 612.744141 67.094337 490.195312 49.122643 1062.091797 113.820755 898.693359 68.292458 1021.242188 38.339622 1184.640625 69.49057 1511.4375 50.320755 1184.640625 66.04 1593.136719
*19 63, 124.91803 1459.369873 92.3 2653.4 49.967213 1592.039551 99.240433 796.02 53.437157 464.345215 47.191254 2056.385254 113.814201 66.333984 56.907101 1326.7 101.322403 597.015625 49.967213 597.014648 23.595627 995.024414 53.437157 928.689453 111.038246 663.350586 120.754097 796.018555 44.415298 132.670898 43.027321 1260.364258 90.218575 796.021484 64.540985 1194.029297 98.546448 66.335938 33.311474 862.353516 77.032784 0. 44.415298 928.689453 92.99453 265.341797 0. 597.013672 108.262291 597.015625 45.803276 995.023438 4.857924 66.335938 18.043715 132.67 108.262291 199.003906 0.693989 464.345703 109.650269 331.675781 1.387978 265.339844 6.245902 928.689453 116.590164 862.355469 3.47 331.673828 76.338799 464.345703 15.267759 729.683594 36.087429 132.671875 101.322403 265.339844 85.360657 1525.703125 10.409836 2918.740234 113.120216 2388.058594 95.0765 132.667969 16.655737 265.34375 65.23497 995.027344 64.994118 3913.761719
*24 63, 124.91803 10945.273438 92.3 19900.498047 67.235298 11858.853516 49.967213 81.441406 99.240433 5970.152344 53.437157 3482.585938 47.191254 15422.890625 113.814201 497.507812 56.907101 9950.25 101.322403 4477.609375 49.967213 4477.617188 23.595627 7462.679688 53.437157 6965.171875 111.038246 4975.140625 120.754097 5970.140625 44.415298 995.023438 43.027321 9452.726562 90.218575 5970.171875 64.540985 8955.21875 98.546448 497.515625 77.032784 6467.65625 33.311474 0. 44.415298 6965.171875 92.99453 1990.046875 0. 4477.625 108.262291 4477.609375 45.803276 7462.671875 4.857924 497.515625 18.043715 995.03125 84.666672 1311.9375 0.693989 3663.171875 72.215691 1674.90625 39.84314 2135.234375 47.313728 8540.921875 77.196083 3202.84375 29.882355 5338.078125 76.338799 2988.609375 49.803925 1281.875 36.087429 5185.8125 101.322403 1990.03125 37.352943 9905.984375 85.360657 1536.796875 59.764709 3801.28125 44.823532 7473.3125 52.294121 8540.921875 42.333336 6405.703125 52.294121 8540.9375 65.23497 15486.625 64.994118 29353.21875
*26 60, 120.754089 636.227539 15.614753 374.251526 71.12 248.513855 121.795074 275.438232 52.716984 17.856445 3.122951 281.5448 65.896225 290.350708 120.754089 458.152344 45.72 25.578369 84.840157 386.098389 46.726418 233.112305 16.135244 178.564209 120.233597 112.275391 66.04 259.014648 51.518867 144.589844 68.292458 326.797607 23.422131 280.077148 90.045074 37.425293 99.934418 74.85 40.64 35.540527 100.45491 263.86084 60.96 185.779297 15.24 539.568359 94.7295 60.580566 71.12 299.131836 73.909828 224.819824 10.16 314.748535 71.886795 12.048828 23.962265 408.49707 91.44 29.09375 56.213112 246.091309 20.367926 10.762207 92.254715 122.549316 35.56 70.237793 9.584906 419.958008 106.68 119.610352 5.990566 288.88623 103.037735 122.549805 20.32 307.988281 76.2 359.712891 106.63208 149.291992 7.188679 204.248047 76.679245 326.797852 16.135244 341.71875 32.349056 25.927734 73.084908 326.797852 99.934418 320.926758 46.726418 210.119141 22.901638 388.683594 100.64151 428.30957 65.896225 81.7 101.839622 122.548828 33.547169 0. 9.584906 163.398438 115.018867 163.4 21.566038 285.948242 103.037735 204.248047 15.575472 204.248047 80.273582 204.248047 35.943398 326.796875 83.867928 204.25 45.528301 326.796875 93.452835 204.248047 19.169811 326.797852 118.613213 367.646484 22.764151 449.347656 83.867928 612.744141 26.02459 38.893555 67.094337 451.301758 104.618843 110.074219 14.053278 37.425781 127. 224.550781 125.438515 74.851562 21.860655 449.101562 60.897537 0. 113.467209 74.849609 49.122643 91.238281 9.368852 58.462891 28.627048 486.527344 113.987701 0. 60.897537 187.125 16.135244 149.701172 113.820755 16.876953 102.53688 207.673828 77.032784 0. 44.762291 0. 15.094261 74.849609 91.08606 523.953125 52.569668 112.275391 48.926228 37.423828 48.405735 37.425781 68.292458 27.640625 22.901638 84.634766 53.610653 37.425781 21.340162 37.423828 15.614753 673.652344 120.233597 37.425781 0. 299.402344 38.339622 14.675781
*32 60, 71.12 1258.99292 52.716984 293.294678 65.896225 571.895508 45.72 483.730713 46.726418 619.210693 66.04 549.854248 51.518867 144.589844 68.292458 326.797607 40.64 427.893066 60.96 449.640137 15.24 539.568359 71.12 359.712402 10.16 539.568359 71.886795 12.048828 23.962265 408.49707 91.44 29.09375 20.367926 256.853516 92.254715 122.549316 35.56 70.237793 9.584906 419.958008 106.68 119.610352 5.990566 288.88623 103.037735 122.549805 20.32 307.988281 76.2 359.712891 106.63208 149.291992 7.188679 204.248047 76.679245 326.797852 32.349056 367.646484 73.084908 326.797852 46.726418 531.045898 100.64151 816.993164 65.896225 81.7 101.839622 122.548828 33.547169 0. 9.584906 163.398438 115.018867 163.4 21.566038 285.948242 103.037735 204.248047 15.575472 204.248047 80.273582 204.248047 35.943398 326.796875 83.867928 204.25 45.528301 326.796875 93.452835 204.248047 19.169811 326.797852 118.613213 367.646484 22.764151 449.347656 83.867928 612.744141 67.094337 490.195312 49.122643 1062.091797 113.820755 898.693359 68.292458 1021.242188 38.339622 1184.640625 69.49057 1511.4375 50.320755 1184.640625 66.04 1593.136719


C7 & C8 panning data:


 

Event no. Control Data
*4 & *16 63, 100.263161 866.425964 76.868423 505.4151 6.684211 288.808716 66.842102 649.819458 60.157894 866.426025 93.578949 72.202148 20.052631 0. 20.052631 794.223633 127. 216.606689 120.315788 1444.043457 50.13158 144.404297 16.710526 1444.043457 95.119339 292.67 94.074074 583.468262 40.105263 640.106934 80.210526 1227.436523 43.447369 1155.235352 50.13158 938.62793 66.842102 577.617188 113.631577 1155.234375 56.815788 577.617188 90.236839 1877.256836 53.473686 3682.310547
*20 73, 103.605263 1152.482178 3.342105 354.61 90.236839 531.914795 73.526314 265.957397 43.447369 265.95752 86.894737 88.652344 33.421051 177.305176 123.657898 88.652588 30.078947 265.957275 80.210526 177.304932 26.736843 620.567383 36.763157 265.957275 120.315788 88.652832 73.526314 265.957031 3.342105 177.305176 53.473686 177.305176 80.210526 177.304688 93.578949 0. 30.078947 88.652344 110.289474 88.652344 116.973686 265.958008 80.210526 88.652344 113.631577 265.95752 60.157894 88.652344 103.605263 88.652344 6.684211 354.609863 110.289474 88.652344 36.763157 177.305176 53.473686 443.262207 63.5 177.304688 23.394737 88.65332 36.763157 88.652344 40.105263 177.304688 56.815788 443.262207 100.263161 88.652832 26.736843 177.304688 80.210526 88.652344 73.526314 265.958008 103.605263 443.261719 6.684211 354.610352 90.236839 177.304688 6.684211 88.65332 60.157894 531.914062 43.447369 88.652344 90.236839 265.957031 90.236839 88.654297 123.657898 88.652344 80.210526 0. 60.157894 88.652344 83.552635 354.609375 103.605263 88.652344 113.631577 0. 83.552635 88.652344 60.157894 177.305664 10.026316 88.652344 120.315788 88.652344 100.263161 354.609375 16.710526 265.958008 46.789474 0. 66.842102 88.652344 116.973686 443.261719 33.421051 0. 66.842102 88.652344 96.921051 354.610352 83.552635 88.652344 36.763157 354.609375 93.578949 177.305664 36.763157 265.957031 6.684211 88.652344 0. 709.220703 76.868423 88.652344 13.368422 88.652344 106.947372 177.304688 20.052631 354.610352 90.236839 354.609375 56.815788 88.652344 66.842102 88.65332 127. 443.261719 0. 88.652344 90.236839 443.263672 43.447369 0. 73.526314 88.652344 56.815788 88.652344 43.447369 0. 23.394737 88.652344 83.552635 0. 63.5 88.652344 90.236839 797.871094 63.5 354.611328 63.5 88.652344 0. 88.652344 127. 88.652344 30.078947 0. 96.921051 88.652344 40.105263 177.304688 63.5 265.958984 93.578949 88.652344 43.447369 443.261719 56.815788 88.652344
* 24 63, 69.272728 1923.077026 25.977274 0. 72.159096 360.576904 54.840912 961.538574 8.659091 360.576904 95.25 240.384521 31.75 360.577148 83.704552 240.384277 95.25 1442.308105 31.75 0. 98.136368 120.191895 69.272728 120.192383 23.09091 0. 63.5 120.192383 46.18182 1322.115723 57.727276 120.191895 20.204546 120.192383 60.61364 120.192383 80.818184 0. 20.204546 240.384766 118.340912 240.384766 25.977274 360.577148 54.840912 721.15332 80.818184 480.769531 60.61364 0. 54.840912 240.384766 124.11364 841.345703 17.318182 120.192383 25.977274 240.384766 89.477272 0. 43.295456 600.961914 31.75 0. 83.704552 0. 23.09091 240.383789 23.09091 120.192383 109.681824 841.34668 80.818184 240.384766 103.909096 240.384766 37.522728 0. 72.159096 841.345703 66.386368 0. 43.295456 0. 8.659091 240.384766 63.5 0. 51.954548 600.961914 92.36364 0. 20.204546 240.383789 20.204546 600.962891 92.36364 240.382812 57.727276 240.384766 80.818184 120.193359 23.09091 240.384766 37.522728 240.384766 127. 600.960938 86.590912 0. 25.977274 240.384766 77.931824 120.191406 28.863638 120.193359 83.704552 600.960938 37.522728 600.962891 51.954548 0. 43.295456 240.382812 31.75 360.578125 75.045456 0. 101.022728 480.769531 43.295456 240.384766 11.545455 0. 95.25 240.384766 8.659091 240.382812 127. 120.193359 60.61364 0. 37.522728 1562.5 72.159096 240.384766 28.863638 120.191406 20.204546 120.193359 77.931824 480.769531 57.727276 360.576172
*26 0, 73.526314 5338.078125 60.157894 8540.925781 53.473686 8540.923828 103.605263 1067.617188 53.473686 3202.845703 46.789474 12811.386719 3.342105 4270.464844 50.13158 1067.613281 73.526314 4270.464844 43.447369 1067.613281 16.710526 3202.847656 3.342105 1067.617188 46.789474 17081.851562 36.763157 8540.921875 83.552635 1067.617188 127. 1067.617188 16.710526 8540.921875 127. 1067.617188 127. 3202.84375 127. 8540.929688 26.736843 4270.460938 116.973686 1067.617188 6.684211 1067.617188 127. 2135.226562 40.105263 8540.929688 0. 9608.539062 66.842102 1067.609375 30.078947 14946.625 73.526314 7473.3125 53.473686 2135.234375 103.605263 0. 106.947372 7473.296875 13.368422 1067.625 83.552635 3202.84375 83.552635 5338.078125 40.105263 10676.15625 83.552635 1067.609375 0. 1067.625 93.578949 6405.6875 26.736843 3202.84375 0. 17081.859375 73.526314 1067.609375 6.684211 17081.859375 56.815788 0. 66.842102 2135.234375 0. 2135.21875 6.684211 19217.09375 46.789474 2135.21875 83.552635 8540.9375 66.842102 1067.59375 33.421051 8540.9375 76.868423 21352.3125
*32 42, 76.868423 270.758118 73.526314 1173.285156 96.921051 541.516235 120.315788 1534.296143 40.105263 180.505371 113.631577 722.021484 33.421051 90.25293 23.394737 2888.086426 70.184212 90.25293 93.578949 1083.032715 106.947372 1263.537109 33.421051 361.011719 93.578949 0. 26.736843 812.273438 76.868423 1624.548828 63.5 1534.296875 33.421051 631.768555 26.736843 722.021484 86.894737 1263.538086 86.894737 812.273438 70.184212 722.023438 66.842102 1263.537109 70.184212 2436.822266 63.5 2527.076172


C9 & C10 panning data:

Event no. Control Data
*16 66,127. 2346.570312 20.052631 902.5271 93.578949 180.505371 60.157894 2075.8125 120.315788 902.526855 73.526314 902.527344 50.13158 90.252441 80.210526 722.021484 16.710526 361.010742 80.210526 90.25293 100.263161 90.25293 23.394737 361.010742 96.921051 1173.285156 116.973686 90.25293 13.368422 270.757812 66.842102 631.768555 3.342105 90.25293 60.157894 361.010742 100.263161 90.25293 20.052631 361.010742 90.236839 270.758789 46.789474 270.757812 23.394737 180.504883 93.578949 361.010742 127. 90.25293 76.868423 451.263672 23.394737 90.25293 36.763157 631.768555 127. 90.25293 120.315788 361.010742 23.394737 451.263672 93.578949 270.757812 40.105263 0. 123.657898 90.25293 33.421051 270.757812 116.973686 1985.55957 50.13158 180.505859 0. 90.251953 113.631577 1895.306641 43.447369 90.253906 0. 2346.570312 63.5 1895.306641
* 20 66, 60.157894 1843.971558 50.13158 2695.035645 106.947372 141.84375 20.052631 2411.347656 13.368422 1134.751465 110.289474 425.532227 96.921051 141.84375 23.394737 2553.191406 20.052631 567.375977 123.657898 283.6875 73.526314 567.375977 16.710526 1134.751953 53.473686 283.6875 100.263161 992.908203 0. 283.6875 110.289474 567.375977 56.815788 141.844727 26.736843 992.908203 53.473686 0. 23.394737 141.84375 76.868423 141.84375 76.868423 709.21875 56.815788 567.376953 53.473686 425.53125 16.710526 283.6875 73.526314 0. 86.894737 141.84375 60.157894 141.845703 83.552635 851.0625 13.368422 141.84375 10.026316 141.84375 113.631577 141.845703 70.184212 567.375 60.157894 141.84375 127. 992.908203 13.368422 141.84375 120.315788 992.908203 36.763157 1418.439453 63.5 141.84375 10.026316 1134.751953 120.315788 141.84375 16.710526 1134.751953 76.868423 141.84375 113.631577 141.84375 16.710526 1702.126953 106.947372 283.689453 16.710526 709.21875 26.736843 425.533203 100.263161 709.21875 43.447369 1418.439453 76.868423 6241.136719
*24 60, 75.045456 360.576935 66.386368 721.153931 54.840912 240.384644 63.5 1802.884521 75.045456 2043.269531 83.704552 721.153809 63.5 1802.884766 83.704552 841.346191 69.272728 2283.65332 77.931824 600.961914 14.431819 0. 8.659091 961.539062 77.931824 240.383789 83.704552 2403.84668 23.09091 360.577148 127. 480.768555 23.09091 120.192383 20.204546 1201.922852 66.386368 841.347656 92.36364 600.960938 89.477272 2163.460938 37.522728 360.578125 118.340912 841.345703 72.159096 1562.5 95.25 360.576172 49.068184 120.193359
*26 63, 73.526314 5338.078125 60.157894 4270.462891 70.184212 4270.461914 76.868423 12811.388672 46.789474 3202.847656 76.868423 2135.230469 73.526314 8540.925781 93.578949 8540.925781 66.842102 2135.230469 60.157894 0. 73.526314 1067.617188 0. 8540.921875 116.973686 1067.617188 70.184212 13879. 43.447369 1067.617188 90.236839 0. 63.5 6405.695312 70.184212 7473.3125 90.236839 0. 63.5 2135.226562 56.815788 13879.007812 0. 2135.226562 63.5 1067.617188 116.973686 3202.851562 66.842102 3202.84375 33.421051 1067.617188 36.763157 2135.226562 36.763157 4270.46875 60.157894 3202.84375 80.210526 10676.15625 46.789474 4270.46875 106.947372 4270.453125 43.447369 2135.234375 13.368422 16014.234375 43.447369 1067.609375 70.184212 8540.9375 36.763157 5338.078125 80.210526 3202.84375 50.13158 8540.921875 10.026316 2135.234375 66.842102 1067.609375 60.157894 20284.703125 56.815788 4270.46875 113.631577 2135.21875 53.473686 10676.15625 53.473686 12811.390625 66.842102 23487.546875 66.842102 11743.78125
*32 60, 66.842102 541.516235 50.13158 324.90979 56.815788 1028.880859 56.815788 1083.032471 46.789474 541.516113 53.473686 649.819824 73.526314 1028.880859 43.447369 54.151367 70.184212 920.578125 56.815788 108.302734 76.868423 487.364746 40.105263 595.667969 73.526314 487.364258 30.078947 541.516113 86.894737 270.758789 53.473686 54.151367 93.578949 54.151367 53.473686 324.910156 43.447369 0. 83.552635 54.151367 6.684211 216.606445 83.552635 324.910156 50.13158 108.303711 20.052631 108.301758 26.736843 162.456055 50.13158 270.756836 53.473686 162.456055 70.184212 758.12207 56.815788 162.455078 56.815788 270.757812 56.815788 541.516602 46.789474 162.455078 53.473686 920.578125 43.447369 216.605469 46.789474 270.757812 56.815788 1083.033203


Buffer storage:

Buffers are labelled eN where N is the number of their associated pedal trigger/record event. In the event of reconstruction of the patch the naming is arbitrary but enables tracing through this document and the current software.

Buffer name Length in ms.
e1 15000
e2 15000
e3 3000
e4 10000
e5 256
e10 15000
e11 1000
e28 1000
e29 3000
e30 500
e31 2000


Output:

Audio is routed in stereo to the selected audio device.
Pedal changes are indicated by a flashing button and a numerical display showing the currently active event.

 

 

 

             Acknowledgements

 

In no particular order I would like to express my gratitude to: my parents Bryan and Elizabeth; Em, Alena, Ben, Bess & Gizmo; Barbara Clark; Professors Andrew Lewis, Jonty Harrison & Robert Normandeau; Dr Chris Collins, Rosie Skelton & Bangor University Symphony Orchestra, Prof. Graeme Harper, Nigel Shaw, Amici del Canto & Sioned Eleri Roberts; Paul Luke, Marion Garrett, Nigel Gaston, Jean Wild & Egerton Rothesay School; Shelly Oscinberg; Dr. Tim Porter; Rhodri Davies; Edward Davies; Andrew Hill; Bethan Elfyn & Adam Walton at Radio 1, Steve Simms & Owain Llyr at Coast/Champion F.M. (later Heart), Ergo Phizmiz at WFMU; Bill Connor; the Parry Williams Scholarship trust, the Drapers Guild, Bangor University School of Music; All the nurses and staff at Alderhey Children's Hospital; Liz Dow & Alan Couchman; the staff and patrons of the Alex Penmaenmawr; Roger, Wil, Chris, Mauve, John Lawrence & all of the Snowdonia Nights Out Gazette (SNOG) crew; Malcolm and James Hendre; Jack Corlett & Harry Perry; Blipfonica Records; Rob, Zak, Paul, Stelios and Nikos; and to anyone else who was accidentally left out, it was not intentional!

 

 

 

For Gilbert and Alena Wright, Grandpa and Daughter.

One lost, the other born, during the course of this work.

May your gardens grow well and the sunlight shine in your souls.

 

With all my love. E

 

1907-2006    &    2008-